倒装语序和成分分割 | 新编英语阅读手册





Ⅰ. 疑问句(包括反意疑问句句末部分)需要倒装语序(见第 136 节、一)

II. there be 结构的句中,主语一般在谓语之后:

  1. There are 12 months in a year. 一年有十二个月。
  2. There stands an information center building by the river. 河边上矗立着一幢信息中心大楼。

III. 某些表示祝愿的句子采用倒装语序:

  1. Long live the people! 人民万岁!
  2. May you succeed! 祝你成功!

Ⅳ. 句首以否定词 not, not only, never, no, hardly, scarcely, little, no sooner… than, seldom, not until 以及以含有否定词或否定意味的短语(如 in no way, in vain 等)开头的句子,后面的主语、谓语的语序要颠倒。例如:

  1. Not a single word have we written down. 我们一个字也没写下。
  2. Not only is he a scientist, but he is also a poet. 他不仅是一个科学家,而且也是一个诗人。
  3. Never has any country made so much progress in such a short time. 从来没有一个国家在这样短时间内取得这样大的进步。
  4. Hardly (或 scarcely) had the space shuttle landed when the people ran toward it. 航天飞机刚着陆,人们就朝飞机跑去了。
  5. No sooner had they got to the plant than they started to work. 他们一到工厂就开始工作了。
  6. Little does he know about cloning technology. 关于克隆技术他知道极少。
  7. Seldom (或 Rarely) has he met us lately. 他近来很少碰见我们。
  8. No where will you find the answer to this question. 你无论在哪里也找不到这个问题的答案。
  9. Not until midnight did I solve the problem. 直到半夜我才解出这道题。
  10. In no way (或 By no means) does the temperature equal the amount of heat. 温度决不等于热量。
  11. In vain did she try to do it. 她试图作这件事,但白试了。

Ⅴ. 句首是 hence, thus, only, often, many a time, so(作“如此”讲,不作“因此”讲),here 等副词时,主、谓语位置就可能颠倒。以 there, now, then 为句首的句中,后面的谓语为 come, go, follow 时,主语和谓语常颠倒。例如:

  1. Thus ended the lesson. 课就这样结束了。
  2. Only after they had performed hundreds of experiments did they succeed in solving the problem. 只是在做了几百次实验之后,他们才把这一问题解决了。(主句中主、谓语颠倒,而从句内主、谓语不颠倒。)

注 1:当 only 说明主语时,主、谓语就不能颠倒。例如:Only police men can come in. 只有警察才能进入。

  1. Often(或 Many a time)have we tried on the latest fashions in shoes. 我们好多次试穿一些最时髦的鞋子。
  2. So fast does light travel that it is difficult for us to imagine its speed. 光运行得如此之快,我们很难想象它的速度。
  3. Hence comes the name magnet. 由此得出磁铁这个名称。
  4. Now comes your turn. 现在轮到你了。
  5. Then began our new lesson. 于是我们的新课开始了。
  6. Then followed ten years of hard struggle. 接着是十年的艰苦奋斗。
  7. There goes the bell. 铃响了。
  8. Here is the palm computer you want. 这里是你要的掌上电脑。

注2:以 here 为句首的句子,当后面谓语为 be 时,主语和谓语常颠倒。如果主语为人称代词,则主、谓语不颠倒。例如:

  1. Here we are. This is the shopping center. 我们到了。这就是购物中心。
  2. Do you want this video disc?Here you are. 你要这个光盘吗?给你。

Ⅵ. 分句以 so(作“也如此”讲),nor, neither, no more 开头时,主、谓语一般采用疑问句格式的颠倒。例如:

  1. They work hard; so do you. 他们工作努力;你工作也努力。
  2. Production is going up steadily, so is the people’s standard of living. 生产在稳步提高,人民的生活水平也在稳步提高。
  3. Our society has changed and so have the people in it. 社会变了,人也变了。

注:若第二分句只是重复前句意思,则 so 后的主、谓语就不颠倒。例如:Copper conducts electricity; so it does. 铜能导电;它确是这样。

  1. I don't think Joe will come, nor(或neither)will Sidney. 我想乔不会来,锡德尼也不会来。(若后句改为 nor does Sidney,则全句意思变为:我想乔不会来,锡德尼也这样想。)

Ⅶ. 非真实条件从句省略 if 时,就要求该从句采用疑问句格式的主、谓语颠倒。详见第 143 节三、Ⅰ和Ⅲ。

  1. Were there no loss of energy by friction, the motion would continue indefinitely once it had started. 如果不存在由摩擦而产生的能量损失,运动一经开始,就会永远继续下去。
  2. Should the weather be wet, I shall stay at home. 假如万一真的下雨,我就呆在家里。

Ⅶ. 用另外的语序手段表示让步从句。例如:

  1. Much as he likes physics, he likes mathematics better. 虽然他很喜欢物理,但更喜欢数学。
  2. Child as he is, he operates a computer better than I (do). 尽管他是个孩子,但他操作计算机比我好。
  3. Try as I might, I couldn't lift the box. 我使最大劲也抬不动这个箱子。
  4. However hard I try, I cannot understand this question. 尽管我费好大的劲,这个问题我仍未能理解。
  5. All magnets behave the same, be they large or small. (= …the same whether they (may) be large or small。)所有磁体,不论大小,其性质都一样。(意译)
  6. Close though the union of small particle is, we have found ways of breaking them. 虽然微粒结合很紧密,我们还是找到了分裂方法。(本句 close 不颠倒也是可以的。)
  7. Be it quite late, I must go to computer center. 时间虽很晚,但我必须去计算中心。
  8. He said that he would go to the real estate trade center come what might. 他说,不管发生什么事,他也要去房地产交易中心。

Ⅸ. 用语序表示比较从句。例如:

  1. The smaller the particles, the more freely do they move. 粒子越小,运动越自由。(后面主句中的主、谓语也可不颠倒. )
  2. The higher the temperature of the air, the more water vapor can it absorb. 空气温度越高,就能吸收越多的蒸汽。


  1. Therefore a compound is considered the more stable,the smaller its potential energy. 因此,化合物的势能越小,化合物就被认为越稳定。
  2. The velocity of sound is the greater, the greater the elasticity and the less the density of the medium. 介质弹性越大,密度越小,则声音传播的速度就越快。

注:注意含有比例关系的主句常有主、谓语颠倒现象。例如:As is the teacher, so is the pupil. 什么样的老师就有什么样的学生。

Ⅹ. than 连接的比较状语从句中主、谓语有时颠倒。例如:

  1. Alcohols are much more reactive than are ethers. 醇的活性比醚强得多。
  2. The molecules of gases move more freely than do those of liquids and solids. 气体分子运动比液体和固体的分子运动更为自由。

Ⅺ. 引导从句的疑问词和关联词,不管它们在句中作何成分,始终位于从句首部,后面主语、谓语仍按陈述句语序。

  1. I don't know who he is. 我不知他是谁。
  2. He knows little about what was said at the meeting. 关于会上说的内容,他知道极少。
  3. This is the teacher of whom I spoke to you. 这就是我对你说过的那位老师。
  4. That is why we are carrying out the reform and opening policy. 这就是为什么我们实行改革开放政策的原因。
  5. Under which conditions the robot works is one of the important questions. 机器人在哪些条件下工作是重要问题之一。

III. 有时为了使描写的景象更生动,可将与动词构成固定词组的副词 out,in,down,up,away 等词置于句首,而句中主语和谓语顺序颠倒。例如:

  1. Down came the hammer and out flew the sparks. 铁锤一落,火星四射。
  2. Up went the arrow into the air. 箭射上了天。


  1. He told me in detail how they overcame all the difficulties. 他详细告诉我,他们是如何克服一切困难的。(状语多半位于句末,这里 in detail 提前了。若放在宾语从句之后,则易误认为与从句内的谓语有关。
  2. They discussed with great interest the plan for increasing production. 他们怀着很大兴趣讨论了增产计划。(若状语 with 短语移后,则怕它与谓语相隔远些,也怕它说明 increasing,故移往 discussed 之后。)
  3. You have in "lives" another plural form, a little different from the regular ones. "lives" 一词是与规则变化形式有点不同的另外一种复数形式。(句中宾语由非限制性定语修饰,使宾语部分太长,从而将状语 in "lives" 提前。本句未按原文结构翻译。)
  4. Each chemical clement has as its basic unit one atom which is different from the atoms of every other element. 每种化学元素都以一个原子作为其基本单位,而该原子和所有其它元素的原子是各不相同的。(句中 one atom 是 has 的宾语,本应位于宾语补语 a sits basic unit 的前面。由于 one atom 后面带一个定语从句,使宾语很长,于是采用先出现宾语补语,后出现宾语。)
  5. He considers impossible what is really possible. 本来可能做到的事,他认为不可能做到。(为了使句子结构匀称,把宾语从句放在宾语补语之后。)
  6. The problem arises whether the temperature is high enough. 温度是否够高的问题提出来了。(whether…是 problem 的同位语从句,本应放在 problem 后面,但为了句子结构匀称,不使主句谓语 arises 孤单地留在句末,结果使从句挪到后面。)
  7. No method is known by which it is possible to create energy out of nothing. 人们都知道,不存在凭空就能产生能量的方法。(by which… 为定语从句,修饰句首的主语 method。它本应位于 method 后,但这样会使主语部分太长,谓语太短。为避免“头重脚轻”,定语从句就移到句末。)
  8. Of especial interest are the laws dealing with the effects of forces upon the form and motion of objects. 论述力对物体形状和运动影响的定律具有特殊的意义。(主语 the laws 有较长的后置定语,使主语组合的短语太长,故挪到谓语后,而表语就置于句首。)


Ⅰ. 由 any, some, no, every 等构成的合成代词,其定语都放在这些合成代词的后面。例如:

  1. There is something new in their conclusion. 他们的结论有某种新东西。
  2. There is nothing more precious than time. 没有东西比时间更为宝贵。
  3. There is not anything dissimilar in the behavior of the two gases. 这两种气体的性能没有什么不同的地方。

II. 当定语由单个分词表示,而该分词仍保持有较强的动词意义时用法举例

  1. We must try to get the advanced equipment needed. 我们必须设法得到所需要的先进装备。
  2. These new materials can with stand strong stresses involved and high temperatures developed. 这些新材料能经得住所受到的强大应力和增加的高温。
  3. We study by comparing things known with things unknown. 我们是通过已知事物和未知事物的对比来学习的。
  4. Determine the ratio of oxygen reacting to water formed. 试求参加反应的氧和生成的水之间的比例。

此外,分词在下列词组中一般都放在所修饰的名词后面。例如:the day Following (或 the following day) 下一天;for the time being 目前,暂时;the money required 所需之款;the parties concerned 有关各方面;the mistakes made 已犯的错误等。


  1. This is the best computer known. 这是已知的“电脑中”最好的电脑。
  2. This is the best known computer. 这是最有名的电脑。(不一定是最好的电脑,因为 best 仅说明 known。)

III. 必须注意:有些定语习惯于放在某些名词后,但为数不多。例如:

  1. page four. 第四页(基数词作序数词用时,总是位于名词后面。)
  2. sum total. 总额
  3. Money due. 应付之款
  4. China proper is rich in production and dense in population. 中国本土物产丰富,人口稠密.

Ⅳ. 有些常作表语的形容词可作后置定语,并具有表语的力量。

  1. All the people present (= who were present) agreed in taking part in the sports activities. 到场的全体人员都同意参加体育活动。
  2. At that stage in most factories the only fuel available (= which was available)was coal. 在那个阶段,大多数工厂里唯一可用的燃料是煤。

注:属于上述形容词还有 responsible,alive 等。

Ⅴ. 后置定语由形容词短语、不定式短语、分词短语、介词短语表示时举例

  1. Without forces sufficient to overcome the resistance, bodies at rest will never move. 没有足以克服阻力的力,静止的物体决不会运动。(形容词短语作后置定语。)
  2. An atom contains small particles carrying two kinds of electricity. 原子含有带两种电的微粒。(现在分词短语作后置定语。)
  3. How can we obtain water freed of these impurities? 我们如何获得没有这些杂质的水呢?(过去分词短语作后置定语。)
  4. Seal up one end of a glass tube about 34 inches long. 把长约 34 英寸的玻璃管的一端封闭起来。(形容词短语作后置定语。about 34 inches 作形容词 long 的程度状语。)
  5. He carried on the research on new materials capable of with standing strong stresses. 他继续研究能承受强大应力的新材料。(形容词短语作后置定语。)
  6. All countries, big or small, are on a completely equal footing. 国不论大小,都一律平等。(形容词短语作非限制性定语,一般都后置。)
  7. On the table there are five mobile phones all Chinese-made. 桌上有五部移动电话,全都是中国造的。(过去分词短语作非限制性定语,一般都后置。)
  8. These programmers have rich experience in practice. 这些程序员有丰富的实践经验。(介词短语作定语,一般都后置。)
  9. They checked the distribution pipes buried in the streets, taking the water to the houses, shops and factories. 他们检查了埋在街道下面的配水管道,而这些管道将水送入住户、商店和工厂。(现在分词短语作非限制性定语,一般都后置。)
  10. Do you know the professor from Nankai University? 你认识那位来自南开大学的教授吗?(介词短语作定语,一般都后置。)
  11. This is a film about the life of astronauts. 这是一部描绘宇航员生活的影片。(同上)
  12. Our office building, with a floor space of nearly 15 000 sq. m., was built in 1978. 我们的办公楼建筑面积约一万五千平方米,建于 1978 年。(介词短语作非限制性定语,一般都后置。)

Ⅵ. 副词(如 here, there, above 等)作定语时,位置都在所修饰的名词后面。例如:

  1. The computers here are of a new type. 这里的电脑都是新式的。
  2. The table above shows that it is difficult to solve this problem. 上述的表格说明解决这个问题是困难的。


  1. Down came the ceiling. 天花板掉下来了。
  2. Down they went. 他们走下去了。


  1. Across the river lies a newly built bridge. 新建的一座桥横跨这条河。
  2. Next door to us lives a senior programmer, Ms. Ye. 我们隔壁住着一位高级程序员叶女士。
  3. To this class of substances belong glass, wood, etc. 属于这类物质的有玻璃、木材等。
  4. Through water, sound travels much faster than through air. 声音通过水的传播比通过空气要快得多。
  5. So ductile is gold that it can be drawn into a fine wire. 金的延展性如此之大,以致能把它拔成很细的丝。
  6. To the list may be added the following names. 名单上还可加上下列名字。


  1. A very simple experiment it is. 这是十分简单的实验。
  2. Great have been our achievements since 1997. 1997 年以来我们的成就是巨大的。
  3. This substance begins to harden and still harder will it soon become. 这个物质开始硬化,并且它将很快地变得更硬。
  4. Written on the label is the model of the car. 标签上写了汽车的型号。
  5. Such is the case. 情况就是如此。
  6. Terribly hot it certainly was. (当时)天气热得真够厉害。
  7. Very grateful they were for our offer of help. 他们很感谢我们对他们提供帮助。


  1. Of considerable interest is the nature of oxygen. 氧气的性质相当有意思。
  2. Chief among them are silk, tea and electrical appliances. 其中主要的是丝、茶和家用电器。
  3. Evident, oil is of great use. 显然,石油大有用处。(evident 为主句的表语,oil… 为主语从句,主句省略了谓语 is。)


  1. To be especially considered is construction of some elevated roads. 要特别考虑的是建立几条高架路。
  2. Gone forever are the dark days when China depended on foreign oil. 中国依赖洋油的黑暗日子一去不复返了。
  3. Constantly growing too is the volume of chemical goods. 产量也不断增长的还有化学制品.
  4. Closely associated with the rapid development of national economy is the policy of opening wider to the outside world. 国民经济迅速发展是和对外界扩大开放的政策紧密有关的。


  1. All his life Einstein had devoted to efforts to build world peace. 爱因斯坦已把他整个一生献给了为建立世界和平所作的努力。
  2. No defects did the students find in these parts. 在这些零件上,学生们的确没有找到什么缺陷。
  3. Gold they found native. 他们发现金子是原金。(native 在这里是宾语补语。)
  4. Their views we believe to be fair and true. 他们的见解我们认为是中肯和真实的。
  5. What she says you can rely on. 她说的话你可以信赖。
  6. But who the author was, no one could guess. 但作者是谁,没有人猜得出来。
  7. What they wanted to do in 10 days, they finished in two. 原来想用十天做的事,他们两天就做完了。



  1. Written on the label you have seen 110 volts. 你已经见到 110 伏特写在标签上了。
  2. Don't let fly away this little strange bird. 别让这只奇怪的小鸟飞走.
  3. Modern physics will make possible synthetic production of the elements. 现代物理将使元素的人工合成生产成为可能. (也可理解为宾语部分太长,就让宾语补语挪前。)


Ⅰ. enough, conceivable, possible 等词作定语时,其位置也有可能在所修饰的名词之后,而 enough 修饰形容词、副词时,必须在其后。例如:

  1. We have time enough to do the three experiments. 我们有足够的时间去做这三个实验。(句中 enough 也可位于 time 前。)
  2. He walks fast enough. 他走得够快. (enough 不可用于副词之前。)
  3. The temperature is high enough to melt this substance. 温度够高,足以将该物体熔化。(enough 不可用于形容词之前。)
  4. We must try to help them in every way possible. 我们必须设法以一切可能的方式帮助他们。
  5. We must take every means conceivable into consideration. 我们必须考虑一切可能设想的办法。

II. 注意 only 或 alone 的词序和所修饰的词之间的关系:

  1. This is the only example that they know. 他们所知道的例子只有这一个。(句中 only 在名词前作形容词用,作“唯一的”、“仅有的”讲。)
  2. Today he can only repair the two cellular phones.(= Today he can repair the two cellular phones only.)今天他只能修理这两部蜂窝式移动电话。
  3. Only She (或 She alone)did the test. 只有她做了这个试验。
  4. She only did the test yesterday. 她昨天只不过做了这个试验。
  5. Give a signal only to this instrument. 只对这个仪表给一个信号。
  6. It is right only because people look at the question practically. 这之所以对,只是因为人们从实际出发来观察问题。
  7. Only in that way did we construct such a road fly over. 当时我们只是用那种方法来建造这样一条路的立交桥。(only 位于句首并且不修饰主语时,句中主、谓语要颠倒。)

III. 注意 more 和 by far 的位置:

  1. Add more than 50 grams of salt to the water. 将 50 多克盐加于水中。
  2. Add 50 more grams of salt to the water. 再加 50 克盐于水中。
  3. This is by far the best condition. 这是最最好的条件。
  4. It is better by far. 这好得多了。(= …is much better,)

Ⅳ. 注意 well 对动词的位置:

  1. They may account well for the GDP growth rate. 他们可能很好地解释国内生产总值增长率。

但当 well 位于情态动词 may, can 和其后的动词原形中间时,则意思变为“完全可能”、“大大可以”. 例如:

  1. a. They may well account for the economic growth rate. 他们完全可以解释经济增长率。
    b. You may as well account for the rapid development of Beijing’s international tourism industry. 你不妨解释一下北京国际旅游业的迅速发展。(由“…还是解释…为好”引申过来)。

Ⅴ. 注意 than 后面的从句有时有主、谓颠倒的现象:

Copper wire allows a large current than does iron wire. 铜线比铁线能容许更大的电流通过。


  1. I have never been in my life so kindly treated. 我一生中从来没有受到如此亲切的接待。
  2. This question has never been completely settled. 这个问题从未得到完全的解决。
  3. We should by all means develop our tertiary industry. 我们应该想方设法发展第三产业。
  4. He remembered having once carried out that test at ordinary temperature. 他记得曾一度在常温下进行过那种试验。
  5. Pressure is believed to considerably raise the boiling point of fa liquid. 我们相信压力颇能升高液体的沸点。
  6. These young people may, if they study and work hard, make great achievements in their research work. 这些年青人,如果努力学习和工作,就可以在研究工作中取得很大成就。
  7. I had not, until (或 till) then, found my lost watch in the corner of the bedroom. 我到那时才在卧室角落找到我丢失的表。


Ⅰ. 定语同中心词的分隔:

  1. A list has been drawn up of words we learned so far. 一张学到目前为止的单词表已经(被)列出来了。
  2. A good understanding has been obtained of the reform of the commercial systems which are carried out in many cities. 对于许多城市实行的商业系统的改革已有了很好的理解。(介词 of 短语是说明谓语前面的 understanding 的。)
  3. A16-candle-power lamp has a resistance when (it is) hot of 220 ohms. 16 烛光灯通电后的电阻为 220 欧姆。
  4. The principle here is to give students as many opportunities as possible of actually using their English in plainly imagined situations which duplicate as closely as possible the conditions of real life. 这里的原则是要尽可能多地给学生在简单清楚的设想场合下积极使用英语的机会,而这种场合尽可能完全地模拟真实生活的状况。 (of actually using… situations 是修饰 opportunities 的。which 是 situations 的定语从句,而 as closely as possible 是状语,使动词 duplicate 及其宾语 the conditions 分割开。)

II. 定语从句通常紧跟在所修饰的中心词之后,但有时由于下列两种情况使定语从句和中心词分隔开。这两种情况是:

A. 被分隔的中心词带有后置定语,而该定语由介词短语、分词短语和形容词短语等组成。例如:

  1. We often say that there are some more places left on the earth where the foot of man has not trodden. 我们常说,地球上还留下一些地方是绝无人迹的。(过去分词短语使中心词和定语从句分隔。)
  2. You remember that electric charges, positive and negative, which are responsible for electrical forces,can wipe one another out and disappear. 你还记得,担负电力的正负电荷是能够相互抵消和消失的。(形容词短语使中心词和定语从句分隔。)

B. 定语从句说明主句中的主语,但为了不使主语部分太长而谓语被远抛在句末,同时也是为了使整个句子结构匀称,定语或定语从句没有紧接主句的主语,而是被其它成分隔开。例如:

  1. An interesting second method may be found which is also consistent with the equation. 可以找到一个令人感兴趣的第二种(计算)方法,而它也是符合这个方程式的。
  2. Very wonderful changes in matter take place before our eyes every day to which we pay little attention. 我们不甚注意物质中的那些很奇异的变化,但它们在我们眼前却每天发生。
  3. All is not gold that glitters. 灿烂者非皆黄金。(或:中看的未必都中用。)
  4. No student came to class but brought his book. (或… class who did not bring his book.) 没有一个学生不带书来上课。(句中 but 为关系代词,等于 that not。)
  5. No process is possible whose sole result is the absorption of heat from a source at a single temperature and the conversion of this heat completely into mechanical work. 不可能有一种过程,其单一的结果是从某一温度(下)的热源吸收热量并且全部地将该热量转变为机械功。

C. 同位语从句和中心词的分隔:

  1. Earlier the idea was proposed that there is no material but will deform more or less under the action of forces. 更早些时候就提出过这样的看法:各种材料在力的作用下多少会有些变形。(that 引出同位语从句。若它按常规放在中心词 idea 后面,则上句在结构上就出现主语部分太长,谓语太短的“头重脚轻”现象。因此,分割是为了使句子结构匀称和平衡。)
  2. What supporting evidence is there that it is necessary to develop the technology intensive economy? 有什么强有力的证据可说明必须发展科技密集型经济?(同上)


  1. Aware as we are of the significance of the four modernizations, shall we not, one and all, offer our best towards their earIy realization. 虽然我们认识到四个现代化的意义,难道我们每个人将不会为它们的早日实现付出最大的努力吗?(句首由 as 通过非常语序引出让步状语从句,one and all 分割了主句的复合谓语。)(主句)(主语从句)(同位语从句)

  2. It must be kept in mind that the general statement can be made that whereever there is motion there is friction. 必须牢记,可行的一般说法是:哪里有运动,哪里就有摩擦。(第二个 that 引出同位语从句,其中心词 the general statement 被谓语 can be made隔开。按理同位语从句应在 statement 之后但这样做,主语部分(包括同位语从句)就太长,而谓语在句末太短,引起“虎头蛇尾”现象。为使句子结构匀称,就采用本句成分割裂的句子结构。)

  3. There have been opened up to the vast and excellent science,in which my work is the beginningway sand means by which other minds more acute than mine will explore its remote corners. 通往科学这个无比美好的广阔领域的道路和手段已经展现在眼前。在科学领域里,我的研究只是个开端。比我敏锐的其它想法,将利用已展现的道路和手段,来探索科学领域的遥远境地。(主句内的主语为 way sand means(注意它们并不和前面的 the beginning 构成并列成分)。由于该主语后跟有 by which 引出的定语从句,所以主语部分太长,不宜于放在句首正常位置上,于是就让谓语位于句前,先用 there 置于句首,充一个数,而将真正的主语挪到谓语的后面。to the vast and excellent science 也修饰主语 way sand means,本应放在该主语后面由于在修饰主语的介词短语中,介词宾语 science 后面又有一个非限制性定语从句来修饰,加上主语 way sand means 已有一个定语从句了,使得该介词短语无法放在所修饰的主语后面,于是就放在谓语后面。the beginning 是第一个定语从句内的表语。形容词短语 more acute than mine 修饰第二个定语从句内的主语,而 than 又引出一个以省略句形式出现的比较状语从句。译文用了三个独立的句子,采用分译和变序翻译相结合的方法。)