“比较级 + than”的用法和注意点 | 新编英语阅读手册

“比较级 + than”的用法和注意点

“比较级 + than”的用法和注意点

一、用于对两者进行比较。在 than 后面的比较状语从句内,与主句相同部分可省略,而不同部分须写出。有时 than 后的从句有主语、谓语颠倒现象

  1. This multimedia computer works better than my PC (或 personal computer). 这台多媒体计算机比我的个人计算机运作得好。
  2. We can hear sounds with frequencies greater than 16 and less than 20,000 vibrations per second. 我们能听到频率为每秒钟大于 16 次和小于 20,000 次振动的声音。(比较级形容词短语作后置定语。)
  3. This work is more difficult than I thought. 这项工作比我原先想的还要艰巨。
  4. In some places, the oceans are deeper than a mountain is high. 有些地方海洋深度大于山峰的高度。
  5. The bridge will be completed earlier than (it will) when I am out. 这座桥的竣工时间将比我外出不在时还提前。(意译)
  6. Copper wire allows a larger current than does iron wire. 铜丝容许通过的电流比铁丝大。(does 为代动词。注意 than 后主语、谓语可能颠倒。)
  7. This condenser is of higher capacity than is actually needed. 这个电容器的容量比实际需要的大. (注意 than 后面的从句省略了主语 it.)
  8. In science, more than in any other human institution, it is necessary to search out the past in order to understand the present and to control the future. 科学比任何其它社会事业更需要探索既往,以便了解现在,掌握将来。(本句中两个不同部分进行比较的是地点状语,只是其位置在句首而已。译文也未按原文结构翻译。)
  9. He is a better than average pianist. 他是位中上等的钢琴家。
  10. However, under these conditions grass is more sensitive than normal to short age of water. 可是,在这些条件下,草对缺水比正常情况要敏感。
  11. As she was tired after a long walk, she went to bed much earlier than usual. 由于厂距离步行后感到疲乏,她去睡觉就比平时为早。(注意不能用 usually 代替 usual)。

注:注意“more than + 形容词或分词”的用法可理解为“很…”或“超过”等。例如:

1)She is more than glad to help others. 她帮助别人感到很高兴。
2)I am more than pleased with the result. 我对结果深为满意。
3)Then the more-than-human inventor of electric lamps was only 34 years old. 那时这位超人的电灯发明家才 34 岁。

注:本项内的 more 也可改为其它比较级。例如:"Challenger" was travelling in a lower-than-planned or bit. “挑战者号”那时正在比预定计划为低的轨道上运行。

二、单个 more 是 many(“许多”,用于可数名词复数)和 much(“许多”,用于不可数名词)的比较级

  1. In this container there is more water than in that one. 这个容器内的水比那个容器多。
  2. Pig iron is an alloy of iron and carbon with the carbon content more than 2.0 percent. 生铁是铁和碳的合金,其中碳含量大于 2.0%。
  3. He has more English books than I (have 或 do). 他的英语书比我多。

三、注意比较级和 than 割裂的情况

  1. This small lamp has a higher resistance than that large one. 这个小灯泡的电阻比那个大灯泡的大。
  2. In this device there are more machine parts than in that one. 在这个装置内机器零件比那个装置多。
  3. We have collected more materials from the computer network than from the books. 我们从计算机网络收集的材料已比从书中收集的多。(意译)
  4. Our company has produced more mobile phones this year than last year. 我公司今年生产的移动电话比去年多。

有时,比较级和 than 之间甚至插进了一个从句。例如:

  1. In this case you will expect liquids to expand more when (they are) heated than solids do. 在本情况下,你会料想到液体受热时要比固体膨胀得多。
  2. You get more tired when you lift a heavy load than a light one. 举一个重物时,你就觉得比举一个轻物要累。

四、注意比较级前加 much, a lot, a great deal, many, far, by far, still 或 even, a little, a bit, 数字 + times, any (如 any more 或 any longer 等用于疑问句或否定句)等

  1. We must unite to win still greater victories. 我们必须团结起来争取更大的胜利。
  2. Computers translate English into Chinese much (或 far) faster than we. 计算机英译汉比我们快得多。
  3. Sound travels much more slowly than light. 声音的传播比光慢得多。
  4. T1 is a lot higher than T2 . T1 比 T2 高得多。(句中 a lot 也可用 much 或 a great deal 代之,意思相同。若用 more than ten degrees 代替 a lot,则句意变为:T1 比 T2 高 10 度以上。)
  5. He has learnt many more English words than I. 他学的英语单词比我多得多. (由于 words 是可数名词,故必须用 many, 不能用 much.)
  6. The furnace should be built a little (或 a bit) higher than that one. 这个炉子应比那个炉子修建得稍高一点。
  7. This method is far better than that one. 这种方法远比那种方法好。(也可用 by far 代之,而 by far 置于句末更妥。)
  8. It is even (或 still) faster than the fastest plane. 这比最快的飞机还要(或更)快。
  9. This rod is 4 inches longer than that one. 这根杆比那根长四英寸。(净增加数值)
  10. He runs twice faster than I. 他跑步比我快一倍。(通常理解为快一倍,极少理解为快两倍。)

五、注意 not 和 no 同“比较级 + than”连用时的含义差别(见第 76 节第二项)

六、以 -or 结尾的七个形容词有比较级含意,却不用 than 连接一个比较状语从句,而用介词 to 引出一个被比较的对象

  1. This IP phone is (muchfar) superior in quality to that one. 这部网络电话的质量比那部(远为)优越。
  2. My knowledge is (farmuch) inferior to yours. 我的知识远远不如你。
  3. My arrival in Beijing is posterior to that of Prof. Lu. 我比卢教授后到达北京。

注:上述带 -or 的形容词比较级一般无相应的原级,前面不能用 very 之类副词修饰。类似的还有 senior(年长于),junior(年幼于),anterior(早于),prior(较先于)等。其中只有 superior 和 inferior 允许前面加 much 或 far。


  1. The College of Education Building is higher than all other buildings (或 any other buildings) in this town. 在这个城镇内,教育学院大楼比所有(或任何)其它楼高。
  2. He is taller than any his classmates. 他的身材比他的所有同学高。(把他自己不包括在被比较的范围内。本句不再用 other,因后面 his 已表明。)
  3. The moon is much closer to the earth than any stars. 月亮比任何星球离地球近得多。(月亮不算行星或恒星。不属于同类比较’就不必加 other。)


  1. Better to do well than to say well. 说得好不如做得好。(句首省略 It is)
  2. Easier said than done. 说易做难。(完整说法是:It is easier to be said than to be done. )

九、“the + 比较级……(从句),+ the + 比较级……(主句)”结构表示“越……越……”之意

  1. The more you practise, the more you know. 实践越多,知道越多。
  2. The warmer water (is), the faster it evaporates. 水越热,蒸发得越快。
  3. The smaller the particles (are), the more freely do they move. 粒子越小,动得越自由。(本句第二部分主谓语不颠倒也可,即去掉 do。)
  4. The more you learn, the more you find you don't know. 学得越多,就发现知道东西越少。(未按原文结构翻译。注意第二个 the more 是和 find 后的宾语从句的谓语 don't know 有关。)
  5. The harder you work, the greater progress you will make. 你越用功,你进步就越大。(当后面的主句为将来时态时,本句型的从句要用现在时代替将来时。)
  6. The harder the shrub is to grow, the higher (is) the price. 灌木越难长高,其价格就越高。
  7. The sooner, the better. 越快越好。
  8. More haste, worse speed. 欲速则不达。

上述各句中,第一部分是比较状语从句,第二部分为主句。主句和从句之间的逗号有时就可不用。本句型中的比较级前的 the 并不是冠词,而是副词。前面的 the 有 by how much 含义,而后面的 the 有 by so much 含义。本句型常省略某些成分:系动词 is, are 常可省略(见第 2,3,6 句),有时连主语和谓语都不见了(见第 7 句),甚至比较级前的 the 也都省略了(见第 8 句)。有时主句中主语、谓语可能出现颠倒现象(见第 3 句)。

十、注意“正常语序 + 比较级…(主句),the + 比较级…(从句)”结构的用法

  1. Therefore a compound is considered the more stable, the smaller its potential energy. 因此势能越小,化合物就被认为越稳定。(=Therefore the smaller the potential energy, the more stable a compound is considered. )
  2. You sing the better, the more you practise. 练习越多就唱得越好。 (the more you practise, the better you sing.)
  3. An object draws the harder, the more matter it contains. 物体含有的质量越多,它的引力就越大。(=The more matter an object contains, the harder it draws.)

这里,比较状语从句在主句之后。这是根据主句中主语和谓语等句子成分是正常语序,不是“the + 比较级”在句首这种形式来判断的,但在翻译时,仍必须先译从句,后译主句。

注 1:如果用连词 when 将主句和从句连接起来,主句和从句仍用比较级以表示“越……越……”含义,则“the + 比较级”不必置于句首,并且其中 the 也根本不必加。例如:When we encounter more difficulties, we should be more spirited; when we are more at danger, we should be more courageous. 遇到困难越多,就越应振作精神;处境越危险,就越应鼓足勇气。

注 2:有时主句虽无比较级,但仍有词表示增减含意,而这时比较状语从句仍在主句后面,仍用“the + 比较级…”结构。例如:The temperature of the earth is the higher the deeper you go. 你越往深处探测,地球温度就越高。

注 3:表示“越……越……”含义的近义句不少,但用法不完全相同. 请参阅第 12 节、三。

注 4:注意下列句中“the + 形容词比较级”已名词化了:There were two rooms in the beach house, the smaller of which served as a kitchen. 那时这幢海滨房子里有两个房间,其中较小的一间作厨房用。