As 的主要用法和判别 | 新编英语阅读手册

As 的主要用法和判别

As 的主要用法和判别

英语里的 as 是一个比较常见、用法繁多的词。它和其它词的搭配关系也很广泛。现归纳为以下几种作用。至于它的特殊用法, 即在各种固定词组里的用法, 我们打算在下一个专题讨论(见本节后面 As 在各种句型和固定词组里的用法)。

一、as 用作关系代词, 引出定语从句

I. such … as 像 … 这(那)样的, 像 … 之类的。as 和 such 连用, such 在下列句子里作定语用, 说明主句里的某个名词。as 所引导的定语从句修饰前面的名词, 而 as 本身在从句里, 可能是主语、宾语或表语。

  1. We Will give you such data as will help you in your work. 我们要提供给你们那种对你们工作有帮助的资料。(as 作从句里的主语。)
  2. He is not such a man as would leave his work half done. 他并不是一个做事半途而废的那种人。(as 作从句里的主语, half done 作宾语补语。)
  3. I hope to get such a tool as he repaired this instrument with. 我希望能够得到一个像他用来修理这个仪器的那类工具。(aswith 的宾语, 这个介词短语作状语。)

II. the same … as 和 … 同样的

  1. This is the same tool as I used yesterday. 这和我昨天所使用的工具是相同的。(as 作从句的宾语)
  2. I should like to use the same instrument as is used in your workshop. 我想用你们车间里所用的同样的仪器。(as 作从句的主语。)
  3. He is not the same man as he was. 他和过去不同了。(as 作从句的表语。)
  4. Molecular weights are expressed in the same units as atomic weights. 分子量以原子量所用的相同单位表示之。(as 作关系副词, 定语从句内省略了与主句相同的谓语 are expressed。)
  5. If one object is charged with the same kind of electricity as appears on another nearby, the two objects will repel each other. 如果一个物体带有与它邻近的物体上所出现的同种类的电荷, 这两个物体会相互排斥。(as 作从句的主语。)
  6. This is the same instrument as we stand in need of. 这正是我们迫切需要的那种仪表。(as 作介词 of 的宾语。)
  7. The Chinese people are not the same as they were before. 中国人民跟以前不同了。
  8. Radio waves travel at the same speed as light in empty space or in air. 在空洞洞的宇宙和空气申, 无线电波的传播速度和光速相同。
  9. They do the same job as we do. 他们干的是和我们相同的工作。
  10. Heat radiation is of the same nature as light, X-rays and radio waves. 热辐射就其性质而言, 是和光、X光及无线电波相同的。

注:注意“… same as”有时发展到接近于 just as 引出方式状语从句的用法。例如:

  1. She has put her energy into literature — same as you have put yours into computers. 正如你把全部精力投入计算机那样, 她也把全部精力投入到文学了。

III. as many … as, as much … as(分别用于可数和不可数名词)如 … 一般多;如此之多;凡 … 的 … 都

  1. As many instruments as are in the laboratory have been made most use of. 实验室里那么多的仪器都已充分利用了。(as 作从句的主语)
  2. There are as many books as are needed. 凡是需要的书都有了。(as 作从句的主语)
  3. He has as many books on information technology as I have. 他拥有的信息技术书和我拥有的同样多。(as 在从句中作宾语)
  4. Here is a jar of distilled water. You may use as much as you need. 这里有一大瓶蒸馏水, 你需要多少就可以用多少。(as 在从句中作宾语)
  5. These generators supply only half as much energy as required. 这些发电机只供应所需能量的一半。(第二个 as 在从句中作主语, 其后省略了 is。)

下句中可把 as(指第二个 as)理解为引出相比较的具体内容:

He is a man to whom work means as much as life. 他是一个把工作看作和生命一样重要的人。(to whom… 也为定语从句。)

  1. As much as half a foot of snow has fallen in Tianjin. 天津已下了半英尺厚的雪。
  2. At this weather analysis center, as many as 35 different charts were constructed for a given time. 当时在这个气象分析中心要为同一个规定的时间绘制多达 35 种不同的图表。

Ⅳ. 关系代词 as 代替整个主句, 并在从句中作主语、宾语、表语之用。as 引出的从句为非限制性定语从句。

  1. As (is) announced in today's papers, they have succeeded in solving many problems in accordance with the new theory. 据今天报纸发表, 他们已根据新的理论成功地解决了许多问题。(as 在从句中作主语。)
  2. As is often the case, we have overfulfilled the production plan. 像往常情况一样, 我们又超额完成了生产计划。(as 在从句中作主语。)
  3. As we know, materials expand and contract with the increase and decrease of temperature. 我们都知道, 材料随温度升降而胀缩。(as 在从句中作宾语。)
  4. This machine, as might be expected, has stopped operating. 正如所料, 这台机器已停止运转。 (as 在从句中作主语。)
  5. She rises early and takes a walk every morning, as is usual with her. 她每天早晨早起散步, 这对她已习以为常了。(同上, 但 as 表示整个主句意思。)
  6. As is very natural, man can't live without air and water. 人没有空气和水就不能生存, 这是当然之事。(全部同上。)
  7. The size of the audience, as we had expected, was well over one thousand. 听众人数, 正不出我们预料, 大大超过一千人。(as 代表主句意思, 在从句中作宾语。)
  8. If he comes late, as is usual, for another time, we’ll not receive him. 如果他再次像往常那样迟到, 我们就不予以接待。(as 表示条件从句内的 he comes late。)
  9. Are these two totally different things, having no interconnection, as is often implied?这些是否是通常所指的没有内在联系的两个完全不同的东西?(as 在从句中作主语。现在分词短语 having no interconnection 作非限制性定语, 说明前面的 things。)

代替整个主句的关系代词 as, 常见于下列从句:

  1. as has been said before 如上所述
  2. as may be imagined 如可想像出来的那样
  3. as is well known 众所周知
  4. as we all can see 正如我们大家都能看到的那样
  5. as often happens 正如经常发生的那样
  6. as will be shown in Fig. 5 将如图 5 所示
  7. as has been explained in the preceding paragraph 如在上段里已解释了的那样
  8. as has been already pointed out 正如已指出的那样
    注:上述句子按语法分析为非限制性定语从句, 但翻译时一般可译为“如…”、“像…”、“正如…”等.

Ⅴ. as 有时代替主句里的表语意思, 并在从句中作表语

  1. Internet access is very simple, as indeed it is. 网上访问很简单, 它实际上的确是这样. (as 代替 simple。)
  2. Gasoline is combustible, as are all of the liquids listed in the following section. 汽油是易燃的, 下一节里所列举的那些液体也都是易燃。(as 代替 combustible。)
  3. He is a brave man, as are all other members of his family. 像他家庭其他成员一样, 他也很勇敢。
  4. An atom is not a solid spherical particle, as it was once thought to be. 原子并不像人们曾经认为的那样是刚性球粒。(as 代替 a solid spherical particle, 在从句中作 to be 后的表语, 并和 to be 一起作主语补语。)
  5. Dr. Ouyang is a large-hearted man, as the large-minded men are apt to be. 欧阳博士是个慷慨的人, 而心胸开阔的人往往都是这样。
  6. She thinks my answer incorrect, as it probably is. 她认为我的答案不对, 也许我的答案就是不对。(as 相当于 incorrect。)
  7. Now many young people wish to be scientists, as it is quite possible for them to be on condition that they work hard. 目前许多青年都想当科学家。只要他们刻苦努力, 这大有可能如愿以偿的。

二、as 作关系副词, 引出定语从句

  1. He answered with the same simplicity as he asked. 他回答和提问, 都是同样的直率简洁。
  2. We repaired the air conditioner (in) the same way as he did. 我们采取和他同样的方法去修理那台空调器。
  3. We go the same way as they do. 我们和他们走同样一条路。
  4. A magnetic field maybe represented in the same manner as an electric field. 磁场可采用和电场同样的办法表示出来。(定语从句内谓语省略。)

以上例句里的 with the same simplicity, the same way, in the same manner 等词组在主句里都是状语, 而 as 所代替的也就是这些词组, 所以 as 是关系副词。

三、such as, as such 和 as that 的用法

I. “名词, + such as…”这里 such as 是复合连接词, 引出同位语, 以对前面的名词起列举作用。可译为“例如”。

  1. There are different forms of energy, such as heat energy, sound energy, electric energy, and chemical energy. 有各种不同的能, 例如热能、声能、电能和化学能。
  2. Soft materials, such as cloth, do not carry sounds so well as wood, iron and other solids. 像布那样柔软的材料, 不如木材、铁和其它固体东西传导声音那样好。

II. “… such as”这里 such 是代词, 作“这样的人、事、物”讲, as 是关系代词, 引出定语从句。

  1. This book is not such as I expect. 这不是一本像我所希望的书。(such 是代词作表语用, 是 as 的先行词。) 比较:This is not such a book as I expect. (句义同上, 但 such 作定语用。)
  2. I will explain this phenomenon to such as would like to know it. 我要对那些愿意了解这种现象的人解释。(such 是代词, 作“这样的人”讲。)

上句中 to such 表示“给这样的人”,作状语,但表示间接宾语的含义,而 as 引出的定语从句说明 such, as 是从句主语。

  1. The new type of space shuttle was made last week, such as none of us had seen before. 这种新型的航天飞机上周制成, 像这样的飞机过去我们中间谁也没有见过。

III. as such 作“像这样的人、事、物”、“作为这样的人、事、物”、“以 … 资格、名义、身份“、“因而”讲。

  1. We agree to the plan as such. 我们同意像这样的计划。
  2. He is an old worker, and is respected as such. 他是一位老工人, 因而受到尊敬。(或译为:受到老工人应该受到的尊敬。)

四、用连词 as 等引出状语从句

Ⅰ. 时间状语从句连词 as 正当…的时候, 随着…

  1. He came up as I was speaking. 我正在说话的时候,他来了。
  2. As the piston moves down, the pressure in the cylinder decreases. 当活塞下移时, 汽缸里的压力减小。
  3. We cannot see sound waves as they travel through air. 声波在空气申传播时, 我们是看不见的。
  4. As a little girl she began to operate a computer. 她还是个小女孩时就开始操作计算机。( as 后省略了 she was。)
  5. The volume varies as the temperature rises. 体积随温度升高而变。

注 1:由 as long asas long as 引出的时间状语从句可参阅第 015 节 24~34, 而由 as soon as 引出的时间状语从句可参阅第 015 节 34~49。
注 2:还可用 as and when 表示“当…时”, 主要用来指一件不肯定的将来的事或一个行动。例如:They will decide on their team as and when they qualify for the competition. 当他们有资格参加比赛时将决定其球队的组成。

II. 原因状语从句连词 as 或 in as much as 由于, 因为

  1. As this problem is of great interest, we will discuss it once again. 因为这个问题很有意义, 所以我们再讨论一次。
  2. As they had forgotten your address, they did not know how to get in touch with you. 由于忘记了你的地址, 他们(当时)不知如何跟你取得联系.
  3. In as much as it is raining hard, I won't go for a walk. 由于正下大雨, 我就不去散步了。

III. 让步状语从句连词 as 虽然, 尽管, 无论

  1. Busy as he is, he studies English very hard. 尽管他忙, 他还是努力学习英语。
  2. Small as atoms are, electrons are still(或 even)smaller. 原子虽然很小, 但电子更小。
  3. Much as I should like to see you, I am afraid you could not have any free time. 虽然我特别愿意看见你, 但恐怕你不可能有空余时间。
  4. Child as he is, he knows something of electricity. 他虽然还是个小孩, 但他懂得一些电学知识。(注意在本句型中, 作表语用的可数名词单数前不能加冠词 a。)
  5. Try as you may, you will not succeed. 虽然你可以试试, 但不会成功。
  6. Study as he may, he won't get good marks, because his method of studying is not scientific. 虽然可以学习, 但他得不了好分数, 因为他的学习方法不科学。

这种让步状语从句的特点:把从句里的表语(第一、二、四句)、状语(第三句中的 much)或实义动词(第六句中的 study)提前, 紧跟着就是 as, 然后再跟随其它成分。

必须注意, 本句型偶尔可用于表示原因状语从句。只能根据上下文来判别。如果主句和从句之间在意义上有转折, 则从句为让步状语从句;如果主句和从句有因果关系, 则从句为原因状语从句。例如:

  1. a. Old as he is, he dares the dangers of icy north。虽然他老了, 但仍敢于冒北方冰寒的危险。
    b. Old as he is, he has to go to bed early. 因为他老了, 他不得不早去睡觉。

Ⅳ. 比较状语从句

A. 一般比较(从句内常省略与主语相同的成分)

(a) as … as 和……一样(或同样)的…[注意:这里第一个 as 是副词, 作“一样”讲;第二个 as 是连词, 作“如同”、“像”讲。]
  1. This line is as long as that one (is). 这条线和那条线同样长。

本句也可写成:This line is no less long than that one. 但是注意 as long as 还可用于条件状语从句。

  1. Dying is as natural as living. 死和生一样, 都是自然现象。(意译)
  2. He works as hard as we. 他工作和我们同样努力。
  3. Wheel A revolves as fast as wheel B. A 轮和 B 轮旋转得同样快。
  4. This is just as important an experiment as that. 这个实验和那个实验正好同样重要。
  5. The speed of sound in water is about four times as great as in air. 声音在水中的速度比在空气中大三倍左右。(直译:…… 速度是在空气中的四倍左右。)
  6. The temperature in the tower is as high as 500°C. 塔内温度高达500℃。
  7. The art of paper-making was discovered as early as 1800 years ago. 远在一千八百年前就发明了造纸法。
  8. He is as diligent as (he is) honest. 他又诚实又勤奋。
  9. The garden is as still as still (can be). 这座花园再寂静不过了。
  10. Her answer is as plain as plain can be. 她的答复再明白也没有了。
  11. Einstein was as great a scientist as any(或 anybody)(else). 爱因斯坦是一位少有的伟大科学家
(b)not so as 不如(或没有)……那样……
  1. Line AB is not so long as line CD. AB 线不如 CD 线(那样)长。
  2. Wheel A does not revolve so fast as wheel B. A 轮没有 B 轮旋转那样快。
  3. Man uses some non-metals not so widely as metals. 人类使用某些非金属,不如金属那样广泛。
  4. Nothing is so precious as time. 时间最可贵。(原意为:没有东西象时间那样可贵了。)
  5. The work did not go so smoothly as we hoped. 工作进行得没有我们希望的那样顺利。
  6. None of the pure metals is so valuable to the industry as the alloys. 对工业来说, 没有一个纯金属像合金那样有价值。
(c) not as … as 和……不一样…(强调两者间的不同)
  1. Line AB is not as long as line CD, but a little longer(或 shorter). AB 线和 CD 线的长度不一样,AB 线比较长一些(或短一些)。
  2. Wheel A does not revolve as fast as wheel B, but much faster. A 轮和 B 轮的旋转速度不同,A 轮的旋转快得多。

注:上述两句中若没有接上 "but…", 则 not as … as 通常和 not so … as 同义, 都表示“前者不如后者…”含义。

B. 比拟

“as … + as + 所比拟的事物”的含义为“如…一样”

  1. It is as white as snow. 其白如雪。
  2. as quick as lightning 速如闪电
  3. as light as a feather 轻如鸿毛
  4. as hot as fire 热如火

Ⅴ. as, just as, much as 和 as if(或 as though)引出行为方式状语从句或表语从句。

A. as 按照……样子、方式、办法……

  1. We must do as the doctor tells us. 我们必须按照医生嘱咐去做。
  2. You must try to hold the tool as I do. 你必须试着像我这样握住这个工具。
  3. Leave the things as they are. 让那些东西保持原状。(或:别动那些东西。)
  4. The result of this experiment is good enough as it is. 照现在这样,这个实验的结果够不错了。
  5. Everything happened as (had been) expected. 每件事情都按照所预料的发生了。
  6. The letter reads as (what) follows. 那封信的原文如下。

上述最后两句里 as 后的省略成分, 在一般情况下, 不必把它们加进去。

  1. Heat does not travel by convection in a solid, because the solid does not move as does a liquid. 热量在固体内不能靠对流传递, 因为固体不能像液体那样流动。(注意 as 引出的行为方式状语从句内有时可能有主、谓语颠倒现象. 本句末的 does 为代动词。)

B. 用 as…, (so)…;…as…;…just as…;just as…, so…表示出带有方式状语从句的主从复合句。

这里副词 so 的含义相当于 in the same proportion(按相同的比例或程度), in like manner(同样地), in the same way(以相同的方式或方法)。连词 as 作“如同“、”像”讲。as 前使用 just 是为了加强语气。有时主句中主语、谓语可能颠倒。例如:

  1. As two is to three, so is four to six. 四比六等于二比三。
  2. Air is to man as water is to fish. 空气对于人, 如同水对于鱼。
  3. Most plants need sunlight just as they need water. 大多数植物正像需要水那样需要阳光。
  4. Just as water is the most important of liquids, so air is the most important of gases. 空气是气体中最重要的一种, 正像水是液体中最重要的一种那样。
  5. As you treat me, so I shall treat you. 你怎样对待我, 我也将怎样对待你。
  6. As is the teacher, so is the pupil. 有什么样的老师, 就有什么样的学生。(或意译为:有其师必有其徒。)

注:注意由 as 引出的方式从句内有时省略主语。

  1. Do as (it) seems best. 按看起来是最好的方式办事。
  2. You must do so much as (it) is required of you. 你必须做要求你做的那么多的事。

C. 用 much as 引出从句, 表示“和…几乎一样”的比拟意味。例如:

We are dealing with something that flows along a conductor, much as water flows through a pipe. 我们正在研究沿着导体流动的一种东西, 这种情况和水通过管道的流动几乎一样。

D. as if 和 as though 好像…似的(从句一般用虚拟语气)[参阅第144节二]

  1. Heat can flow from a hot body to a cooler body as if it were a fluid. 热好像流体一样, 能够从一个热的物体传到一个较冷的物体。
  2. Man has to look after his rivers as if they were blood vessel in a human body. 人类必须照管好江河, 好像它们是人体内的血管。
  3. She works hard as she never knew fatigue. 她努力工作, 仿佛她从来不知道疲倦那样。

注1:as ifas though 更为常用。注意现在也有人在 as if 后用陈述语气, 因为 as if 本身的语义已体现出后面的内容含有虚拟语气。例如:

It looks as if our team is (或 were) going to win. 看来我们队要赢。

注2:as if 后还可直接跟不定式。例如:

She opened her lips as if to say something. 她张开嘴, 好像要说些什么。

注3:注意 as ifas though 有时引出的从句省略了与主句相同的主语及其相应的 be 的变化形式。例如:

He reached out his hand as though (he was) trying to shake John by the hand. 他伸出乎似乎想和约翰握手。

五、用 as 引出宾语补语、主语补语

I. as 引出宾语补语的常用短语

  1. We regard the sun as the chief source of heat and light. 我们把太阳看成是主要的热源和光源。
  2. We consider radio waves as radiant energy. 我们认为无线电波是辐射能。

在科技文章里, 常见的有下列一些“动词(或短语动词)+ 名词(或代词)+ as + 宾语补语”这样的结构:

  • to accept… as 把……承认为, 承认……是

  • to define… as 把……解释为, 对……下的定义是

  • to consider… as 把……认为是

  • to refer to… as 把……指为(叫做)

  • to think of… as 把……看作

  • to treat… as 把……当做;以……来对待……

  • to describe… as 把……描述成

  • to regard… as 把……看成

II. as 引出的宾语补语有如下几种表示形式

A. as + 名词

We usually define energy as the ability to do work. 我们通常下定义说, 能能作功的本领。

B. as + 形容词

  1. We often regard gas as compressible. 我们经常把气体看成是可压缩的。
  2. We accept the conclusion as true. 我们承认这个结论是真实的。

C. as + 介词短语

We regard that conclusion as of consequence. 我们把这个结论看成是具有意义的。

D. as + 分词或分词短语

  1. We consider the wire as disconnected. 我们认为这条线没有接好。
  2. We consider this machine as representing the best one in our plant. 我们把这台机器认为是我们工厂里最好的一台。(或:……认为是代表我们工厂里最好的一台。)

E. 下列各句里 as 也引出宾语补语

  1. The use of silver as a conductor is limited because of its cost. 由于成本高, 银作导体用是受到限制的。(as a conductor 作 silver 的补语, 可联系动词的搭配用法:to use silver as a conductor. 这里 as a conductor 作宾补。)
  2. I make it as a rule to go to our workshop before 6∶00 every morning. 我总是每天早上六点前到车间去。(it 为形式宾语, 后面的不定式为真正宾语。直译:我每天早上六点前去车间, 这件事我已视为惯例。)

III. As 引同主语补语


  1. 主动句:We regard the sun as the chief source of heat and light.
    被动句:The sun is regarded as the chief source of heat and light (by us). 太阳被认为是主要的热源和光源。

  2. 主动句:We cannot consider this suggestion as established.
    被动句:This suggestion cannot be considered as established. 这个提议不能(被)认为已成立了。

在主动句里, as 所引出的补语说明作宾语的 the sun 和 this suggestion, 所以叫做宾语补语。在被动句中, as 引出的补语变为说明作主语的 the sun 和 this suggestion, 所以叫做主语补语. 如果扩大主语补语概念, 对主语补足这个广义来看, 则下列各句内的 as 所引出的成分也可视为主语补语:

  1. As members of the environment protection committee we must set up good example. 作为环保委员会成员, 我们必须树立好榜样. (从意义上也可理解为原因状语。)
  2. Metallurgy as an applied science treats of the deriving of metals and their special properties. 冶金学作为一门应用科学, 是研究金属的提炼方法及其特性的。(从意义上也可理解为同位语。)
  3. How can this be described merely as lacking of experience? 这怎么能说成只是缺乏经验呢?
  4. We produce a lot of H2SO4, HCl and HNO3 which are known as the three main strong acids industry. 我们生产大量硫酸、盐酸和硝酸, 它们通称为工业中“三大强酸”。(省略 which are, 则 known as… 作后置定语。)

Ⅳ. 由 as 引出另一种形式的主语补语

  1. I have come here as a manager. 我以经理的身份来到这里。
  2. Many petroleum products serve as raw materials for the chemical industries. 许多石油产品用作各化学工业的原料。
  3. When coal burns, part of it is left as ash. 煤在燃烧时, 它的一部分作为灰烬留了下来。

六、用 as 引出表语或表语从句

  1. The society is as a stage. 社会好比是个舞台。
  2. It may be as it you say. 这也许是你说的那样。
  3. The answer is as it should be. 答案本应如此。
  4. Things are not always as they seem to be. 事情并不总是像表面上看来的那样。
  5. The room looks just as it did when her late husband worked in it. 这房间还是她的已故丈夫在那儿办公时的那个样子。

七、用 as 引出同位语

  1. Derek told us about his experiences as a young man. 德立克告诉了我们有关他年轻时的一些经历。
  2. Metals possess many special properties, as (或 such as) ductility, fusibility and malleability. 金属具有许多特有的性能,如延展性、可熔性和可锻性。
  3. As an insulator, oil is better than air. 作为一种绝缘体来说, 油比空气好。
  4. Sidney is their team leader, and as such has to sign this paper. 锡德尼是他们的队长, 而作为队长他就得在这文件上签字。

八、用 as 引出插入句

as 作“如同……那样, 正如……那样”解, 也可引出一个附带说明的句子, 表示说话人说出这句话的根据, 或对这句话的态度, 或作出某种解释或评论, 这种成分叫做插入句, 它一般必须用逗号隔开。

  1. The difference, as I see it, is one of method and not of principle. 照我看来, 这是一个方法上, 而不是原则上的分歧。(one 代替 difference。)
  2. As it is, we cannot go there. 就目前情况而言, 我们不能去那儿。
  3. This old machine must be, as it appears to me, replaced by a computer-controlled machine. 依我看来, 这台旧机器必须换成一台由计算机控制的机器。
  4. The products of the chemical industry make a major contribution to present-day standards of living, and life, as we know it today, would be impossible without those products. 化学工业产品对今日生活水平作出重要贡献, 并且正如我们目前所知道那样, 要是没有这些产品, 我们的生活就不可思议。


九、as 的其它用法

I. 在下列句子里 as 所引出的从句, 从句子结构来看是方式状语从句, 作“像……那样的”讲, 从意义来讲, 是定语从句。因此, 能领会其用法就行。

  1. Copper as it comes from ordinary smelting works contains many impurities. 从普通熔炼厂出来的那样的铜, 含有许多杂质。
  2. He wrote about China as it was thirty years ago. 他曾写过三十年前的中国。

II. 下列句子里的“as + 过去分词或过去分词短语”可用作定语

(联系下文,见本节[As 在各种句型和固定词组里的用法] 1、B):

See the answers as given at the end of this book. 请参阅本书末所给出的那些答案。

注 1:as 的基本含义是“像……那样的”。as given 之类的定语, 表示说话人对他所讲的话通过这样方式来加以解释, 对此提出他的看法, 或举例以证实他的观点。如果是平铺直叙的定语, 还可以把 as 取消。如:

See the answers given at the end of this book.

注 2:对于 the answers as given…, 也可以改为:the answers as they are given …。现在再举两个相类似的短语:

  1. the elements as (they are) pointed out below. 如下面所指出的那些元素
  2. the instruments as (they are) listed below. 如下面所列举的那些仪器

III. as many(用于可数名词)(与……)同样的, (与……)数相同的;as much(用于不可数名词)(与……)同量的;同样地

  1. There are sixty tools in that workshop; and there are as many in ours. 那个车间有六十件工具;我们车间里也有同数量的工具(或也有六十件)。
  2. He did it in three hours, but it took me as many days. 这件工作他用三小时做完, 可是却花了我三天(才把那件工作做完)。
  3. Fix fifty hooks to as many ropes. 在这五十个钩子上, 每一个都系上一条绳子。(意译)
  4. This car can run sixty miles in as many minutes. 这辆汽车在六十分钟里(或每小时)能跑六十英里。
  5. I think as much. 我也这样想. (或译:我想到的也是这些。)

十、as 用法的判别

I. 注意 as 和其前后的有关词(如so, such, same, many, much 等)的内在联系。现以其中 as 和 such 的搭配为例, 来说明内在联系的变化。

  1. X-rays can penetrate through many materials, such as wood, cloth and thin sheets of aluminium. X 射线能够穿透许多材料, 例如木材、布和薄铝板等。
  2. The programmed robot is such as I have never seen before. 这样的程控机器人我从未见过。(意译)
  3. Such materials as (are) copper and silver are called good conductors. 像铜和银那样的材料称之为良导体。
  4. This is a new type of precision instrument, and as such it is quite widely used. 这是一种新型的精密仪器, 因而十分广泛地(被)使用。

上面四句都用了 as 和 such 两词, 但它们在各句中排列组合和前后的相互联系不全然相同, 意义就不同。

第 1、2 句中都用了 such as, 但第 1 句中, such as 前有一个逗号, 逗号前是复数名词, 这时 such as 后所列举的东西是前面 materials 的同位语。第 2 句的 such as 前没有逗号, such 在该句中只能作表语用, 其后面的 as 又只能是 such 的关系代词, 引出定语从句。这时 such 就只能作“这样的人、事、物”解。

第 3 句中的 as 前有个指示词 such, 由于 such 是定语, 后面与之呼应的 as 从句必然是进一步说明前面的 such 的, 故从句也是定语从句。判别时抓住 as 前面有没有这个指示词 such 即可, 但与第 2 句的差别在于第 2 句中的 such 单独作代词用, 作“这样的人、事、物”讲, 而第 3 句中的 such 是形容词。只作 “这样的”讲。故后面必有 such 所修饰的名词 materials。

第 4 句和前三句不同点是用了 as such, 而不是 such as。词序变了, 意思就变了。第 4 句表面上把 as such 译为“因而”, 这是翻译技巧问题。实际上该句原意仍是:“这是一种新型的精密仪器, 像这样的仪器它是十分广泛地被使用的。”

根据上述, 我们认为必须注意那些常用的一套一套的“排列组合”。

II. 根据上下文来判断 as 的语法功用。

单个 as 引出的从句有:时间从句、原因从句、让步从句、比较从句、方式状语从句、定语从句、表语从句和插入句(见本节、八)。由于在这些句中只有单个 as, 前后没有像 such, so, same, as, that, many, much 之类的有关词的搭配和衬托, 判别从句的语法意义就要靠上下文和逻辑性来进行。例如:

  1. We cannot see sound waves as they travel through air. 当声波通过空气时, 我们并不能看见它。(时间从句)
  2. As heat energy makes things move, it is a form of energy. 由于热能可使物体运动, 所以它是一种能。(原因从句)

注:用 as 引导的原因从句, 它与主句一般具有明显的因果关系。利用这一点, 就可基本上把 as 引导的原因从句和时间从句相区别开了。

  1. Much as she would like to see this film, I am afraid she is too busy to go to the cinema. 虽然她特别愿意看这部电影, 但我恐怕她太忙, 去不了电影院。(让步从句)
  2. When the circuit is closed, the battery sets these electrons in motion through the wires and motor back to the battery again, much as the pump sets the water in motion. 当电路闭合时, 蓄电池使电子流经电线和马达, 然后再返回蓄电池。这种情况和水泵使水流动的情况是十分类似的。(行为方式从句, 表示比拟)
  3. The result of his research is good enough as it is. 照现在这样, 他的研究结果够不错了。(方式状语从句)
  4. It may be as you say. 这也许是你说的那样。(表语从句)
  5. Gases as we know, expand more rapidly than solids when they are heated. 据我们所知, 当受热时, 气体比固体膨胀得快。(插入句意味的定语从句)

第 1 句和第 2 句只能从句义来判别(见上面关于原因从句的注), 语法本身无能为力。

第 3 句 much 是句中状语。由于位置挪到 as 前面, 就构成让步从句的结构(见本节四、Ⅲ)。但第 4 句从表面上看, 也有 much as 形式, 但由于句中不需要 much 作动词的状语, 于是就不能构成让步从句的结构。这样就意味着用 much as(作“和……几乎一样”讲)引出一个行为方式从句, 表示出和主句的比拟。

第 5 句如果按原因、时间翻译, 句义怎么也讲不通, 也不合逻辑。如果按方式状语从句译, 正好讲得通, 这就表示对该句判别正确。

第 6 句中 as you say 非作表语从句分析不可, 否则该句子成了没有表语了。

第 7 句 as 引出的从句前后有逗号隔开, 一般说来, 作插入句的可能性就比较大了。但作插入句用还缺少一个宾语 them(作 know 的宾语)。可是, 就其从句意思来看, 倒可译为“据我们所知”。如果把该从句分析为 as 代替整个主句意思的定语从句(参阅本节一、Ⅳ), 也未尝不可。因此, 希望不必过多地抠语法分析, 能领会其意就可以了。

As 在各种句型和固定词组里的用法

现把上面的“As 的主要用法和判别”中提到的或没有提到的 as 在各种固定词组里的用法归纳如下:


(A)单个 as 引出各种从句:

  • 时间从句(见本节四、Ⅰ);
  • 原因从句(见本节四、Ⅱ);
  • 让步从句(见本节四、Ⅲ);
  • 比较状语从句(见本节四、Ⅳ);
  • 方式状语从句(见本节四、Ⅴ);
  • 表语从句(见本节六);
  • 定语从句(见本节二和三);
  • 插入句(见本节八)。
  • 同位语(见本节七)

(B)“as +过去分词短语”, 一般构成定语、状语、宾语补语、主语补语或有省略成分的从句:

  1. He hopes we will be able to carry out everything as planned. 他希望我们能按计划行事。(状语)
  2. The nucleus is heavy as compared with electrons. 和电子相比, 核就较重。(状语, 或相当于状语从句:if it is compared with electrons. )
  3. The electrons, as shown in Fig. 5, are very light. 电子非常轻, 如图5所示。(定语或相当于非限制性定语从句。在后一种情况下, 从句中省略is, 而as代替主句整个意思。)
  4. See the answers as given at the end of this book. 请参阅本书末给的答案。(定语)
  5. We can think of an atom as made up of nucleus and electrons. 我们可把原子看作是由核子和电子组成。(宾语补语)
  6. Matter is spoken of as electrically constituted. 我们说物质是由带电粒子构成. (主语补语)
  7. If the separator is(或 goes)out of order, check and clean asit isrequired. 如果该分离器出故障, 则根据需要进行检查和清理。(省略句本身是状语从句。)

(C)“as +介词短语”(这种结构前后多半有逗号, 可译为“如…”、“像…”):

  1. The flow of current in a semiconductor can be formed by a flow of negative charges, as in the case of conductors. 半导体中电流的流动, 像导体内情况一样, 是通过负电荷的流动而形成的。
  2. As in the first method, the gas must be preheated to 150℃. 如同第一种方法, 该气体必须预热到150℃。
  3. I heard the whir as from a car. 我听到了好像汽车的呼呼声。
  4. Without intelligence and diligence on the part of the students, as indeed without the leadership and the coaching of the teachers, a good examination result will not come. 在部分学生身上, 如果他们没有智力和勤奋, 确实如同没有老师的指导和训练一样, 就不会有好的考试成绩.

2. as a matter of fact 事实上, 其实

  1. As a matter of fact, mathematics finds its application in every science. 事实上, 数学在各门科学中都有它的用处。
  2. As a matter of fact, I know nothing about the constructions of the information products. 其实我对这些信息产品的构造一无所知。

3. as a result 结果, 终于, 因此

  1. She studied hard. As a result, she made fast progress in the studies. 她学习用功。因此她在学习方面进步很快。
  2. The production has begun, as a result, to rise rapidly. 生产终于开始迅速地上升。(或译:结果是生产已经开始迅速上升。)

4. as a result(或 consequence)of…作为…结果, 由于…结果

  1. As a result of(或 As a consequence of, In consequence of, Consequent upon)its rise in temperature the gas expands. 由于温度上升, 气体就膨胀。
  2. Science means systematic knowledge possessed as a result(或 as a consequence) of practice and study. 科学是由于实践和研究的结果而获得的系统知识。

5. as a rule, 作为一个常规, 通常, 习以为常

  1. As a rule, we keep records on all the experiments so that we may have enough data. 我们通常总是对所有的实验都作记录, 以便得到足够的资料。
  2. They sum up their experience at the end(或 close)of every year as a rule. 他们通常年终总结经验。

6. as a whole 作为一个整体(来看)

  1. We should analyse the problem as a whole. 我们应该把这个问题作为一个整体来分析。(状语)
  2. He is to be responsible for the work as a whole. 他将要负责整个工作。(定语)

7. as above 如上

It has been explained as above. 这件事已在上面解释过了。

8. as against 与…对照, 与…对比

  1. There are more than three hundred middle schools in Tianjin this year, as against only 80 before liberation. 今年天津有三百多所中学, 而解放前只有八十所。
  2. The production of various electron tubes has been increased four times as against 1958. 电子管产量已比 1958 年增加了三倍。

9. as…as 像…一样, 如…一样(详见前文本节四、Ⅳ-A、B)

10。“as + 形容词(或副词)+as+形容词(或副词)” 又…又…

  1. This method is as simple as practical. 这种方法又实用又简单。
  2. The wheel turns as fast as stably. 这个轮子旋转得又快又稳。

11. as…as any (或 anybody) 不弱于任何的…, 史无前例的…

He is as great a scientist as any. (他是一位少有的大科学家。)

12. as…as anything 非常地…, 无可比拟地…

  1. The work is as easy as anything. 这项工作特别容易。(相当于:…as easy as can be)
  2. I will make it as clean as anything can be. 我将尽量把它弄干净。(也可改为:…as clean as possible。)

13. be as + 形容词(如 clear, easy 等) + as + 与前相同的形容词 + can be

The facts are as clear. 这些事实十分清楚。

14. as…as ever 像往常一样…

She works as hard as ever. 她工作一贯努力。(原义为:她和往常一样, 努力工作。也可写:She works as hard as before. )

15. as…as possible 尽可能地…

  1. We should study as hard as possible. 我们应当尽可能地努力学习。
  2. as soon as possible 尽可能早
  3. as big as possible 尽可能大, 越大越好
  4. as carefully as possible越仔细越好

16. as before 依旧

He gave the same answer as before(或 as ever). 他依然作了相同的答复. (原义:他给了与以前相同的答复。)

17. as compared with 和…相比

China today has produced much more steel as compared with China yesterday. 今天的中国已比过去的中国生产了多得多的钢。

18. as early as…早在…

As early as 1949, he suggested that plan. 早在 1949 年他就提出了那个计划。(1949 前不能用 in。)

19. as(或so)far as…is concerned(或 goes)就…而论

As (或 So) for as the quality of tones is concerned(或 goes), this radio-set is quite up to the standard. 就音质而论, 这架收音机已完全达到标准。

20. as(或so)far as we know. 就我们所知

  1. As far as we know, not all of us realize the importance of this step. 据我们所知, 并不是我们中间每一个人都明瞭采取这一步骤的重要性。
  2. Not so far as we know. 据我们所知, 并非这样。

21. as follows 如下

The text reads as follows. 原文如下。

22. As for(或 as to)至于, 讲到, 关于

  1. As for(或 As to)physics, it is not difficult at all. 至于物理学, 那一点也不难。
  2. As for us, we have no objection. 至于我们, 则并不反对。

23. as good as 跟…一样, 几乎等于

  1. She is as good as her words. 她遵守诺言。(或译:她实践诺言。)
  2. The noise of this machine is so low; it is as good as silent. 这台机器的噪音如此之低, 如同没有声音一样。

24. as if 好像…似的(参阅本节四、D)

25. as it does (或 did) 实际上(与现在分词短语连用时有原因意味)

  1. The process involves as it does the oxidation of CO. 这个过程实际上涉及到 CO 的氧化。
  2. The instrument is of great interest, involving as it does a new principle of work. 该仪器由于涉及新的工作原理而具有重要意义。
  3. Living as we did in a remote village, we rarely had visitors. 由于当时我们住在偏僻的村庄, 所以很少有客人来访。(当涉及的主体是人时, 则用其相应的人称代词。同时还必须注意主句所用的时态。本句内谓语用过去时态, 就用 as we did. 如果谓语用现在时, 则就应该用 as we do.)

26. as it is(或 was) 1. 在句首, 作“但在实际上, 实际上”讲;2. 在句末, 作“照原来样子”讲;3. 与分词连用有原因意味。

  1. As it was, we did help them. 事实上, 我们的确帮了他们。
  2. Carry out the plan as it is. 请照原样执行计划。
  3. It is good enough as it is. 照现在的样子够不错了。
  4. Leave the things as they are. 别动这些东西。(直译为:让这些东西照样放在那儿。)

注意 it 不是一成不变的, 可根据它实际上所代表的名词, 改用 we, they, you, he 等其他人称。上句前面为 the things, 故后面用 they。

  1. Burdened as he was, he could not walk fast. 由于负荷太重, 他不能走快。

27. as it were(插入语)仿佛, 好像, 可以说

The sky is covered, as it were, with a black curtain. 天空好像被黑幕遮住了似的。


(a)as like as not 很可能;多半

As like as not, he is already there. 他很可能已在那儿。

(b)as likely as not 多半

She will fail as likely as not. 她多半会失败。


(a)as long as…如同…之久;如同…长(引出比较状语从句)

  1. Stay as long as you like. 你爱呆多久, 就呆多久。(句中 as you like 为比较状语从句)
  2. So the tree’s shadow will also be three times as long as the tree is high. 因此, 树影长度将是树高的三倍。(第二个 as 引出比较状语从句。)

(b)as long as …当……时(引出时间状语从句)

I will fight for the cause of science and education as long as I live. 我活一天, 就要为科学和教育事业奋斗一天。

(c)so (或 as) long as…只要……(引出条件状语从句)

You may use that dictionary so (或 as) long as you keep it clean. 你可以用那本辞典, 只要你把它保持清洁。
上句中 as long as 和 so long as 还可用 if only 代替。

30. as many(与……)同样的;与(……)数相同的

  1. Those five days seemed to me as many years. 那五天对我好像等于五年一样。
  2. We expected to sell 500 tickets, but we sold twice as many. 我们原希望出售 500 张票, 但后来售出 500 张的两倍。

31. as many… as… 如…一般多…;凡…的…都

  1. From this library you can borrow as many books as you want to read. 在这个图书馆内, 凡是你想读的书都能借到。
  2. There are as many people in your class as in our class. 你班和我班的人数相同。


(a)as many (或 much, fast 等) again as…两倍于, 是…的两倍, 多(或快)一倍

(b)half as many (或 much, fast 等) again as…是…的一倍半, 多(或快)半倍

(c)half as many(或 much, fast 等)as… 是…的一半

  1. I have as many video discs again as he. 我有的影碟是他有的两倍。(表示:…比他多一倍。)(相当于:I have twice as many video discs as he)
  2. Wheel A turns half as fast again as wheel B. A 轮转动比 B 轮快半倍。
  3. They have produced half as much steel as we. 他们生产的钢比我们生产的少一半。

33. as matters stand 按目前情况来说

As matters stand, he does not like to make the plan public. 就目前情况而论, 他不愿公开那个计划。


(a)as much(与…)同量的;同样地

  1. Compared with steel, aluminium has a third its modulus of elasticity, weighs a third as much, and costs about three times as much. 与钢相比, 铝的弹性模数是钢的 1/3, 重量也是钢的 1/3, 而价格则是钢的三倍左右。
  2. I was in the least not surprised, for I had expected as much. 我(丝)毫不惊奇, 因为我早已料到会有这样的事。(意思接近于 so much。)
  3. I hope as much. 我也这样希望。

(b)as much…as… 如…一般多的…

  1. On the moon itself the force of gravitation is one sixth as much as it is on the earth. 在月球上, 重力是地球上的六分之一。
  2. You never get as much useful work out of a machine as you put into it. 你从机器得到的有效功, 永远不会等同于你输入的功。

35. as near as… 差一点…,几乎…

She was as near could be knocked down by a car. 她差一点被汽车撞倒。

36. as near as no matter 差一点…, 很接近于…

The child came as near as no matter being drowned. 这小孩差一点被淹死。

37. as of old 仍旧, 照旧

Such dresses are in fashion as of old. 这样一些服装仍然流行。

38. as often as not 常常, 屡次

We go to the exhibition hall as often as not. 我们常去展览馆。

39. as regards(或 concerns)+名词 至于, 提到, 关于, 就…说

As regards(或 concerns)that cutting machine, its moving parts have been worn out. 至于那台金属切割机, 它的活动机件已被磨损。

40. as shown…如…所示

The value of X, as (is) shown in Fig.2, is great. 如图 2 所示, X 值是大的。(引出非限制性定语从句)

41. as…(从句), so…(主句)如同……一样, ……

As the atom is the unit particle for elements, so the molecule forms an indivisible unit for compounds. 如同原于是元素的基本单位粒子一样, 分子形成了化合物的一个最小单位。

42. as soon as…(连接时间从句)一…就(参阅147三和四)

  1. As soon as the experiment was over, we went to the library. 那个实验一完成, 我们就去图书馆了。
  2. As soon as we disconnect one end of a wire leading to the electric-light bulb, the light goes out at once. 我们一把通电灯泡的一根金属线断开, 电灯立即熄灭。
  3. Speak to Prof. Lu as soon as you can. 你尽早对卢教授去说。

辨异:Speak to her as fast as you can. 你对她说话, 能说多快就多快。

43. as soon as possible 尽早地

We must improve our equipment as soon as possible. (或 as soon as we can). 我们必须尽早改进设备。

44. as such 像这样的人、事、物;作为这样的人、事、物;以…资格、名义、身份;因而

  1. He is our teacher, and as such must be respected. 他是我们的老师, 因此必须受到尊敬。
  2. He was a foreigner and was treated as such. 他是外国人, 所以受到对待外国人的待遇。
  3. History as such was often neglected. 以往历史本身常被忽视。
  4. Wealth, as such, doesn't matter much. 单是有钱财算不了什么。

45. as the case may be 看情况, 随机应变地

  1. In taking a picture, the shutter, the focal length and the other things must be adjusted as the case may be. 在拍照过程中, 快门、焦距等等, 必须按实际情况加以调整。
  2. He arranges matters as the case may be. 他按照实际情况安排事情。

46. as things are 就目前情况而论

As things are, we cannot put the plan into pratice. 就目前情况说来, 我们还不能将此计划付诸实施。

47. as things go 按事态发展来看

As things go, they are looking at this problem. 就事态发展来看, 他们正在分析这个问题。

48. as though…(行为方法状语从句)好像……似的(用法同 as if, 详见上文第 24 条)

49. as to 关于, 至于

  1. As to this home computer, it can be guaranteed for one year. 至于这台家用计算机, 它能保修一年。
  2. A question arises as to how we shall refit the equipment. 关于如何改装那个装置的问题提出来了。(as to 接一个介词宾语从句。)

50. as touching (或 concerning) + 名词 关于…, 有关…,涉及…

Please inform me as touching (或 concerning) the matter. 关于那件事的情况, 请你通知我。

51. as usual照例, 照常

  1. He arrived on schedule (或 on time) as usual. 他照常准时到达。
  2. The notebook computer operates well as usual. 这台笔记本电脑与平时一样, 运转良好。

52. as well 又, 也, 同样

  1. He speaks English as well. 他也讲英语。
  2. The board president has knowledge and experience as well. 这位董事长既有学问, 又有经验。
  3. This law is true of other gases as well. 该定律也适用于其它气体。
  4. Not only does the distance travelled in unit time remain the same but the direction as well does not change. 不仅单位时间内的移动距离不变, 而且其方向也不变。(由于 Not only 在句首, 后面主、谓语要用颠倒语序。)

53. as well as 和…一样, 不但…而且…

  1. He works as well as he can. 他尽可能地做好工作。
  2. You workd as well as he. 你和他都一样工作。(原义:他工作, 而你也工作。)
  3. Those Chinese pupils study English as well as Chinese. 那些中国学生不仅学汉语, 而且还学英语。(注意先译后面的 Chinese, 然后再译前面的 English。)
  4. He has skill as well as knowledge. 他既有学问, 又有熟练技能。
  5. Air, as well as water, is needed to make plants grow. 空气同水一样是植物生长所必需的。(注意句中两个逗号也可不用。后面不能用are。)
  6. Small towns as well as big cities are being rapidly industrialized. 小城镇和大城市一样, 都在迅速地工业化。
  7. The three gas laws are true of all gases, as well as of air. 气体三定律适用于空气, 也适用于所有气体。
  8. We can turn electric energy into light energy as well as into heat energy. 我们不但能把电能转化为热能, 也能转化为光能。
  9. He agrees with you, as well as I. 不但我同意你, 他也同意你。
  10. He agrees with you, as well as with me. 他不但同意我,也同意你。

54. as yet 到目前为止

  1. He has not finished the work as yet. 他到现在还没有完成那项工作。
  2. The laptop (computer) has worked well as yet. 到目前为止这台膝上型电脑运转正常。

55. according as…(从句)随…而定, 依照…

The thermometer rises or falls according as the air is hot or cold. 温度表随着空气的热冷而升降。

56. in as much as…(引出原因从句)因为…

In as much as the pressure increases with depth, there is a greater pressure at the lower surface of the submerged body than at the upper surface. 因为压力随深度而增加, 所以浸入水中的物体的底面所受到的压力比顶面大。

57. In so far as …(从句)在……范围内, 在……限度内

Insofar as I can see, they are all satisfied with this arrangement. 据我了解, 他们对这一安排都感到满意。

58. be known as 叫做, 通称为

This microcomputer is known as a palmtop PC. 这个微型计算机叫做掌上型电脑。

59. just as well 正因如此

Since water is so universally present, perhaps it is just as well that its properties have been studied. 因为水到处存在, 也许正因为如此, 对水的性质已经作了研究。

60. just as with… 正如同…一样(比较状语)

Just as with the parallel water pumps, the currents from these parallel generators will add together to make a total flow of 100 amperes. 正如同并联的水泵一样, 这些并联的发电机所产生的电流将加在一起, 以构成 100 安培的总电流。

61. may as well, might as well(后者婉转)还是……好, 不妨, 也好

  1. You may (或 might) as well repeat the experiment. 你还是把这个实验重做一次为好。
  2. You may as well begin at once. 你不妨立即着手。

62. may (或 might) as well…as (…)与其(…)宁肯…做为好

  1. One may as well not know a thing at all as know it imperfectly. 与其一知半解, 不如完全不知为好。
  2. You might as well advice me to give up my plan as my argument. 你要我放弃我的论点, 还不如要我放弃我的计划。(句中 might 并不表示过去时, 而是虚拟语气, 实际上表示:要我放弃自己论点和计划均不可能。)

63. no…so…as (…) 没…像(…)那样

No substance so completely permeates our lives as do water, air and the like. 没有一种物质像水、空气等那样为我们生活所必不可少。(as 引出的比较状语从句内有主、谓语颠倒现象。其中 do 为代动词。)

64. not so…as (…)不如(…)那样…

He does not study so hard as you. 他学习不如你用功。

65. not so much as…甚至连…也不, 竟未…

  1. He does not so much as understand this law. 他甚至连这个定律都不了解。
  2. There is not so much as an error in his answer. 他的回答连一个错也没有。

注:当 not so much 和 as 分开时, 其用法有异。例如:

The oceans do not so much divide the world as unite it. 与其说海洋分割世界, 还不如说海洋连接世界。

66. not so much…as… 与其说……不如说……(这里 not so much 相当于 less, 而 as 相当于 than。)

  1. He is not so much a teacher as a writer. 与其说他是教师,不如说是作家。(=He is less a teacher than a writer. )
  2. A man’s worth lies not so much in what he has as in what he is. 一个人的价值不在于他拥有什么, 而在于他是什么样的人。(句中两个 what 分别作 in 的介词宾语从句。)

67. same …as…(接定语从句)和……相同的(参阅本节一)

I am reading the same book as you read yesterday. 我正在读的书就是你昨天读的那本书。

68. so as to (后接不定式动词)为的是, 以便…;以致…

  1. We must go early so as to be in time. 我们必须早去, 才能准时。(目的状语)
  2. He worked hard so as to end the task with success. 他努力干, 终于胜利完成了任务。(结果状语)

69. so…as to(接不定式动词)如此地…以致…;若前与 be 连用, 则表示祈使句中“请”之意。例如:

  1. He wrote so carefully as to make every word clear. 他写得如此地小心, 所以每个单词都很清晰。
  2. Heat treatment is used so as to improve the properties of some metals. 使用热处理可改进某些金属的性能。
  3. Petroleum maybe of low viscosity or so viscous as to be nearly im-mobile. 石油有低粘度的, 也有粘得几乎不能流动的。
  4. Be so kind (或 good) as to help me in doing (或 making) the sum. 劳驾帮我算一下。

70. so long as…(条件从句)只要…(上文第 29 条)

Every wire carrying an electric current has a magnetic field so (或 as) long as the current flows. 只要有电流通过, 每根带电的金属丝都产生磁场。

71. so (或 as) far as…(条件从句)就…而论

  1. So (或 As) far as the quality of tones is concerned, this radio set is quite up to the standard. 就音质而论, 这台无线电完全达到标准。
  2. The scientific research is well on the way so far as I know. 据我所知, 这项科学研究正蓬勃开展。

72. such as…像…那(或这)样的(详见本节二)

73. such…as 像…那(或这)样的(详见本节二)

74. such (…) as to + 不定式短语 如此的…以致(结果状语)

This problem is such as to interest only a few people. (= It is such a problem as to interest only a few people.) 这样的问题只能使少数人感兴趣。(联系第53节二、Ⅶ-C 第 4 句)

75. without so much as + 动名词短语 甚至连…也不;竟然没有……

  1. He left the room without so much as closing door. 他连门都没关就离开了房间。
  2. She went away without so much as saying good-bye. 她竟然不辞而去。