And 用法中几个值得注意的问题 | 新编英语阅读手册

And 用法中几个值得注意的问题

And 用法中几个值得注意的问题

一、and 连接两个动词,有时后面动词的行为是前面动词的行为对象或目的,译成汉语时可以连着翻译。但有时and前面的部分用来表示条件

  1. Try and do it again. 再做做看。(行为对象)
  2. Please send and fetch the mini-camera. 请派人把小型照相机拿来。(行为目的)
  3. Let us go and try it again. 让我们再去试试。(行为目的)
  4. Try again and you will succeed. 再试一次,你就会成功。(条件)

注:上述用法中第一个动词多半是表示如下的动词:come, go, try, stop, stay, wait, run, hurry up 等。

二、and 所连接的并列关系及判别

  1. It is impossible to live in society and be independent of society. 生于社会,不能超乎(或脱离)社会。(and 连接两个不定式。)
  2. Everywhere you can find new types of men and objects in the hometown. 在故乡,新人新事比比皆是。(and 连接两个名词 men 和 objects。)
  3. This crude oil is a complex mixture of gaseous and liquid saturated and unsaturated molecules. 这种原油系气态、液态饱和分子和气态、液态非饱和分子所构成的混合物。
  4. Rubber gets warmer when stretched and cools when relaxed. 橡皮(被)拉伸时发热,而放松时变凉。(and 连接两个谓语 gets 和 cools。)
  5. I prefer seeing a story as a TV film to reading it in a book, because I can actually see the characters and how they are dressed and watch their expressions. 我宁愿看电视片故事,而不愿看一本书内的故事,因为这样我能实际地看到各种人物及其穿著打扮,还能注视他们的表情。(第一个 and 连接一个宾语 characters 和一个宾语从句 how…,而第二个and连接动词 see 和 watch。)

注意“and that”在下列两句中是一种加强语气的省略说法,一般可译为“而且”。例如:

  1. You must tell her, and that at once. 你必须告诉她,而且马上告诉她。(that 代表 tell her。)
  2. He will come, and that soon. 他要来,而且很快就来。(that 代替 will come。)

下面这两句,光凭语法分析就判断不了 and 究竟连接了哪两个部分,而必须从逻辑意义上来加以判别:

  1. He said he would come and he did come. 他说他会来的,而他果然来了。(and 连接 He said 和 he did come,不连接 he would come 和 he did come。)
  2. He told her what had happened and left. 他告诉她发生了什么事,然后就走了。(and 连接 told 和 left,而不是连接 happened 和 left 的。)

但还必须注意用 and 把词组和从句连接在一起的情况:

  1. Physics is the study of heat, sound, magnetism, electricity, light, the properties of matter and what it is composed of. 物理学研究热、声、磁、电、光、物质性质以及用以构成物质的东西。( what 从句和 heat 等构成并列。这里可把“东西”引申译为“粒子。”)

  2. The warmer the air, the faster its molecules move and therefore the faster the dust particles in it move. 空气越热,则分子运动就越快,因而空气内尘粒运动也就越快。(第一部分为比较状语从句,后面 and 连接两个并列的主句。)

  3. The moon is a world that is completely still and where utter silence prevail. 月球是一个全然寂静的世界,是一个万籁无声的世界。(and 连接两个定语从句。)

  4. How I wish, John knew how to apply grammatical rules properly and recognized the fact that he is nearly always in the wrong. 我恨不得约翰能知道如何恰当地使用语法规则并且认识到他几乎一直是错的事实。(knew 和 recognized 是并列的虚拟语气。)

有时,句中出现几个 and,必须分析清楚每个 and 所表示的并列关系。例如:Small industrial enterprises producing iron and steel, chemicalfertilizer, coal, machinary, cement, chemical fibres and paper and small hydroelectric power statlons are all over the country. 生产钢铁、化肥、煤、机械、水泥、化学、纤维和纸张的小型地方企业以及小型水力发电站遍及全国各地。(句中从 iron 到 paper,都是 producing 后的宾语。iron 和 steel 中间用 and,是因为“钢铁”是 一固定词组。最后一个 and 才是连接句首的 enterprises 和句子末尾的 stations的。)

注:美国英语用“nice 或 good + and + 形容词”作“very + 形容词”讲。

  1. Your room is nice and warm. 你的房间很暖和。
  2. This melon is good and ripe. 这只西瓜熟透了。

三、用 and 来重叠词的用法

I. 用 and 重叠比较级来表示“越来越……”之意:

  1. In spring the day is getting longer and longer and the night (is getting) shorter and shorter. 春季白天越来越长,夜晚越来越短。
  2. The snow came down faster and faster and lay on the earth thicker and thicker.(当时)雪越下越大,地上的雪越积越厚。
  3. Electronic computers are becoming more and more useful in scientific research work. 电子计算机在科研工作中越来越有用. (只重复 more,而后面原级形容词不重复。)

II. 用 and 重叠词来表示强调和延续之意:

  1. They have checked the conclusion again and again. 他们已经一而再、再而三地检查了这个结论。
  2. What we want, first and foremost, is to learn, to learn and to learn. 我们首先需要的是学习、学习、再学习。
  3. We should read this book through and through(或 over and over). 我们应该反复地通读这本书。 必须指出,动词短语有时没有全部重复,而只重复其中一部分。例如:
  4. The electrons move around and around the nucleus. 电子围着原子核转个不停。
  5. A body in motion will go on and (go) on in motion,unless acted upon by an outside force. 运动的物体,如果不受外力作用,将继续运动下去。
  6. We waited and waited for a long time, but we still didn’t see him come here. 我们等了又等好长时间,但仍未见他来到这里。

四、注意 and 可使句子成分大为省略

  1. The best conductor has the least resistance, and the poorest (conductor has) the greatest (resistance). 最好的导体电阻最小,而最差的导体电阻最大。
  2. All bodies consist of molecules and these (molecules consist) of atoms. 一切物体都由分子组成,而分子由原子组成。
  3. In other words, an atom of chlorine will combine with one hydrogen atom, an atom of oxygen with two, an atom of nitrogen with three, and an atom of carbon with four. 换句话说,一个氯原子会与一个氢原于化合,一个氧原子会与两个氢原子化合,一个氮原子会与三个氢原子化合,而一个碳原子会与四个氢原子化合。

五、注意 and 前的省略情况,一般以“名词 + and…”结构出现

  1. Another hour, and all the doors will be locked. 再过一小时,所有门都要上锁。(Another hour, and… = When another hour has passed…)
  2. One more effort, and we shall succeed. 再努力一下,我们就会成功。(One more effort, and… = If we make one more effort…. )
  3. Two minutes earlier, and we could have caught the last train. 如果早来两分钟,我们就能搭上末班火车了。

六、注意 and 用于加法和一百以上的数字中

  1. One and two are(或 make)three. 一加二等于三。
  2. one hundred and twelve pagers. 一百一十二个寻呼机

七、and 用于罗列举例之末,表示“…等”之意时短语汇总

例如:and so on, and so forth, and others, and the like, and what not 以及 “, etc. ”(但前面不能用 and )等。