省 略 (Ellipsis) | 新编英语阅读手册

省 略 (Ellipsis)

省 略 (Ellipsis)


一、并列复合句中某些相同成分的省略。注意下列各句中用逗号、分号、and、or、but also、while、though 等手段把各分句并列地连接起来的方法

  1. This beeper works well, but that one doesn't (work well). 这个寻呼机正常工作,但那个就不行。
  2. All uranium atoms do not have the same atomic weight. Some of them weigh 234 units, some (of them) (weigh) 235 units, and some (of them) (weigh) 238 units. 所有的铀原子并非都有相同的原子量。其中有的重 234,有的重 235,而有的重 238。
  3. All bodies consist of molecules and these (molecules consist) of atoms. 一切物体都由分子组成,而分子由原子组成。
  4. We frequently regard gases as compressible, (we frequently regard) liquids as incompressible. 我们常把气体看作是可压缩的,而液体是不可压缩的。
  5. Remember that information technology is very important. (Remember) Also that we must continue to develop it. 记住信息技术十分重要,同时也要记住,我们必须继续发展这门技术。
  6. An object is said to be hot if its temperature is much higher than that of our bodies, oran object is said to be)cold if its temperature is much lower (than that of our bodies). 如果物体温度比我们体温高得多,我们就说它热;如果比我们体温低得多。我们就说它冷.
  7. In l973, the output of coal in this region amounted to about 20 percent of the whole country; (the put) of steel (in this region amounted to) 25 percent;of grain 30 percent;of cotton 35 percent. 1973 年该地区的煤产量约占全国总产量的 20%,钢产量占 25%,粮食产量占 30%,棉花产量占 35%。(用分号使各分句并列,后两个分句省略情况同前。)
  8. Many gases are easily changed into liquids and vice versa. 许多气体易于变为液体,而反过来也容易。(句中 vice versa 代替 many liquids arc easily changed into gases.)
  9. This happened and (it was) a good thing too, for it helped us to find out our own short comings. 这件事发生了,但也是件好事,因为它帮助我们找到我们自己的缺点。
  10. Conductors conduct electricity, while insulators do not (conduct electricity). 导体能导电,而绝缘体不能导电。
  11. The laser and the light from an ordinary lamp are one and the something, though (they are) of very different nature. 激光和普通灯光都属于光同一范畴,可是它们的性质大不相同。(句中 though 前有逗号,引出并列分句,作“可是”讲。)

二、在用 when, while, if, as if, though (或 although), as, until, once, whether, unless, where 等连词连接的状语从句内省略跟主句相同的主语及其 be 的相应形式。有时从句中主语 it 或有关成分(见第 5,6 句)也可省略

  1. When (water is) pure, water is a colourless liquid. 水纯时,水是无色的液体。
  2. When (I am) in trouble I always turn to her for help. 我困难时总是找她帮助。
  3. Experience, when (it is) dearly bought, is seldom thrown away. 经验如果是花了很大代价得来的,就很少给扔掉。
  4. A generator may generate electricity when (it is) driven by a steam engine, gas engine or water wheel. 发电机由蒸汽机、燃气轮机或水轮机带动时,它就能发电。
  5. Errors, if any, should be corrected. 如果有什么错误,就应当改正。(if 后可理解为省略了 there are)
  6. Gears and chains must be properly lubricated. If not, there is a large amount of energy wasted due to friction. 齿轮和链必须适当润滑。如果不是这样,就会有大量的能由于摩擦而被消耗。(句中 not 否定前句整个意思,而被否定的句子全部省略。)
  7. If (you are) given the chemical formula of a molecule, can you say how many atoms it is composed of? 如果给你一个化学分子式,你能说出该分子由多少个原子组成吗?
  8. Wood gives much smoke while (wood is) burning. 木头燃烧时,它放出很多烟。
  9. While (we were) there we were thinking of you all the time. 我们在那儿的时候一直想念你们。
  10. Substances have no tendency to expand unless (they are) heated. 除非受热,物质不会有膨胀的倾向。
  11. Once (nitrogen is) combined, nitrogen will not be chemically inert. 氮一旦化合,就不再是化学上的惰性气体。
  12. This substance does not dissolve in water whether (it is) heated or not. 该物质不论加热与否,都不溶于水中。
  13. Water is the same substance whether (it is) in solid, liquid, or gaseous state. 不论水处于固态、液态或气态,它都是同一种物质。
  14. The letter is to be left here until (it is) called for. 这封信留在这里待领。
  15. How can a submarine float and submerge as (it is) desired? 潜水艇怎能按我们愿望进行沉浮呢?
  16. We are to go via (或 by way of) Beijing as (it was) originally planned. 我们拟照原定那样,取道北京走。
  17. Henry looked about as if (he were) in search of something. 亨利向四周环视,似乎在寻找什么。
  18. The temperature of iron increases more rapidly than that of water (increases). (that 为代词。)铁的温度比水的温度增加得快。
  19. We should think much more of this problem than (we think) of that one. 我们应对这个问题比那个问题更为重视。
  20. He is better today than (he was) when I wrote to you last year. 他今天比去年我给你写信时身体好些。
  21. Nothing could be more unhappy than that I haven't any thing to do at home (could be). 什么也没有比我在家无事可做更使我感到不愉快了。(这里是 Nothing 跟连词 that 引出的名词从句在进行比较,而 that 本身无词义。)
  22. We cut down the input of fuel when the increase of output of heat becomes greater than (it) is set. 当热量输出的增加值超过规定值时,我们就切断燃料的输入。
  23. He has drunk considerably more wine than (it) is good for his health. 他喝酒的量已大大地超过对健康有益的界限。
  24. Most machines, no matter how complex (they are), are combinations of the level and inclined plane. 大多数机器,不管(它们)多么复杂,都是杠杆和斜面的组合体。
  25. We will do what is right, no matter what the consequences (are). 只要是对的,我们就做,不管有什么后果。
  26. She studies very diligently though (she is) still rather weak. 她尽管体弱,但仍十分勤奋学习。
  27. When you get to the moon you can jump about six times as high (as you can jump on the earth). 当你到达月球时,你能跳的高度就(比地球上)增加五倍左右。

注:在这类句子中,有时缺少的成分是永远也不表示出来的。例如:The faster the better. 越快越好等.

三、当见到“when (或 if, where, wherever, whenever, as soon as, as fast as, than 等)+ possible(或 necessary 等)”时,可理解中间省略了 it is(或 was),而这个 it 并不是代替主句中某个主语

  1. Answer these questions, if (it is) possible without referring to the book. 如果有可能,请不看书回答这些问题。
  2. Please send over the signals as soon as (it is) possible. 请尽快把信号发过去。
  3. Fill in the blanks with the names of the machines wherever (it is) necessary. 在必要的地方将那些机器的名称填入空格中。
  4. Try to explain this new theory and give actual examples where (it is) possible. 尽力解释这个新的理论,并在可能的地方列举一些实际例子。
  5. When (it is) necessary you can help us to do something. 必要时你可以帮助我们做些事。
  6. Electric current can be transmitted from a power station to where (it is) needed. 电流能从发电站输送到需要电的地方.
  7. We do not use more coal than (it is) necessary. 我们使用的煤没有超出需要量。
  8. The trains must run as fast as (it is) possible. 这些火车必须尽量快速地运行。

四、在 know, think, consider, suppose, find, believe, say, show, decide 等及物动词后面的宾语从句常省略连词 that

  1. I think (that) it will clear up this afternoon. 我想今天下午天气转晴。
  2. We know (that) Ann is going to buy a new generation of home computer. 我们知道安打算买一台新一代的家用计算机。

五、主语从句省略 that 较少见,并且多半只限于有形式主语 it 的句子

  1. It is certain (that) Ms Liao has received my voice mail. 肯定廖女士已经收到我的语音邮件了。
  2. It seems (或 appears) (that) Joe is out, not Derek. 外出不在的似乎是乔,不是德立克。
  3. It is an honour (that) I was invited to your birthday party. 我很荣幸,被邀请参加你的生日聚会。
  4. It’s a pity (that) you can't operate a computer. 很遗憾,你不会操作计算机。
  5. It is the third time (that) I have come to the ground satellite station. 这是我第三次来到地面卫星接受站。
  6. It’s time (that) she took the floor. 该她发言了.

六、在限制性定语从句内可省略作宾语和介词宾语的关系代词 whom, which, that, 而在以 the same…as 和 such…as 引出的某些定语从句内也可省略与主句相同的成分

  1. The software (whichthat)we developed last year can be used to control this process. 我们去年开发的软件可用来控制这个过程。
  2. That is the naughty boy(whomthat)we talked about last week. 那就是我们上周议论的淘气男孩。
  3. I have a pocket radio (which) to listen to when I travel. 我有一个袖珍无线电可供我旅行收听。
  4. The rate of heat transfer through air is not the same as through water. 通过空气的传热速度是和通过水的传热速度不相同的。(as 引出的定语从句内省略了主句内已有的 the rate of heat transferis


1)They won't buy such a computer as yours (is). 他们不会买像你那样的计算机。
2)Do you think the boy is doing something (that) he shouldn't (do)?你是否认为这男孩正在做他不应该做的事吗?

七、在 direction(方向),way(方式),distance(距离),time(时间),times(倍数)……等后面所接的定语从句中省略 that 或 which 以及省略 in which 或关系副词 that 的情况

  1. The direction (in which) we move a body can be changed. 我们移动物体的方向是可以改变的。
  2. The way (in which) he operates the palm computer is different from ours. 他操作掌上电脑的方式和我们不同。
  3. The distancewhichthat)light travels in one second is 300 000 kilometers. 光每秒钟走的距离是 300000 公里。
  4. Mechanical advantage is the number of times (whichthat) the resistance force is as great as the effort. 机械效益是阻力相当于作用力的倍数。(理解本句时可联系“The resistance is 3 times as great as the effort”中的 “3 times” 的用法。该句可译为:“阻力是作用力的三倍。”)
  5. The longer the time (that) you permit the current to flow, the greater is the amount of heat produced. 让电流通过的时间越长,产生的热量就越大。

八、以 there be 开头的句子,其主语的定语从句常可省略关联词,而 there be 结构作定语从句时,省略作主语的关系代词

  1. There is a chance Dr. Fang will be able to be back for May Day. 方博士也许有机会能回来过五一节。
  2. There is possibility we’ll go, all depends on the weather. 我们可能去,但这要看天气而定。
  3. We have to make a list of all the books there are on the subject. 我们必须把所有关于这个题目的书列出一个单子。


上述八种省略情况在英语中是大量出现的。因此在阅读英语时发现句子残缺不全,就应注意有否省略成分。判别时首先看句中有无 And, or, but, when, while, than, if, as, as if, until, unless, once, although (though), no matter how, whether 等连接词或 there be 结构,因为这些连接词是判别有无省略成分的标志和依据。有时分号、逗号也可使分句简化,出现省略情况(如本节、一第4、8 句和二、第 3 句)。若非上述情况,则可考虑是否定语从句省略作宾语的关系代词 that 和 which 或省略 in which 情况(如本节 六 第 1,2 句)。若用 the same…as 或 such…as 引导的定语从句有残缺不全的情况,则可考虑是否省略了主句已出现的有关成分(如本节六 第 4 句)。当然也得注意宾语从句是否省略了连词 that。


Ⅰ. 命令句:

  1. Open the door! 开门!
  2. Stir up the mixture for 5 minutes! 搅拌混合物 5 分钟!

注:如果要强调主语,也可把主语 you 说出来。例如:Yon read the text! 你读一下课文。

II. 惊叹句:

  1. What a wonderful video phone! 多么奇妙的可视电话!
  2. Simply impossible! 简直不可能!
  3. Nothing doing! 不行!

III. 部分第一人称陈述句或陈述自己意见的句子:

  1. Glad to see you。见着你,很高兴。
  2. Sorry, the line is busy. 对不起,占线了。
  3. Out with my friend in the morning, made an experiment in the afternoon. 早上同朋友出去,下午做了个实验。
  4. Doesn't matter. 没有关系。
  5. Time for rest. 该休息了。

Ⅳ. 部分问句:

  1. Right? 对吗?
  2. why not? 为什么不呢?
    why so? 为什么这样呢?
  3. What next? 下一步怎么样?
  4. Anybody wishing to go (或 Anybody interested in going)?谁愿去啊?
  5. Anything you want to take with you? 有什么东西要带吗?
  6. Nothing more you want to say? 不再有什么话要说了?

Ⅴ. 部分答句或在下文中省略了上文中已出现的有关内容:

  1. Get up! 起来! we are (getting up). 我们正在起来呢。
  2. They are getting better at English. 他们英语有进步啊。 Yes,they are. 是的,他们有进步。
  3. I hope you live a happy life. 我希望你生活幸福。
    Yes, I do, thanks. 谢谢,我生活幸福。
  4. I can't go to Shanghai subway station today,but I can next week. 我今天不能去上海地铁站,但我下周能去。

十、用 so(见下面 A),not(见下面 B)或其它手段(见下面 C)来省略上文或问句中的一部分或整个句义


  1. Can Emily do this work? 埃米莉能做这件工作吗?
    I think so. 我想她行。
    I think not(或I don't think so). 我想他不行。
  2. Jessica may not be free today. If so you will not come to me. 杰西卡今天可能没空。如果这样,你就别来我这里了。


  1. Can you do this work? 你能做这件工作吗?
    I am afraid not. 我怕不能。
  2. Will they put you to any trouble in the matter? 他们不会因此事而使你为难吗?
    I hope not. 我希望不会。(注意不说 I don't hope so. )
  3. We may be free today. If not, you will not come to us. 我们今天可能有空。如果不是这样,你就别来我们这里了。


  1. Does she write letters to them? 她写信给他们吗?
    Not any that I know of. 据我所知,她不写信。
  2. Did you know anything about it? 这件事你以前知道吗?
    Not until you told me. 你告诉了我,才知道。
  3. Is Agnes determined to go? 阿格尼丝决心去吗?Unless the leadership does not approve of it. 除非领导不同意。
  4. It is warm today. 今天天气暖和。
    So it is. 对,是暖和。
  5. Tomorrow will be Sunday. 明天是星期日。
    So it will. 对,是星期日。
  6. He has gone. No one knows where (he has gone). 他走了,谁也不知道他去什么地方了。
  7. Jenny knows what (is to be done)! 詹妮有办法!
  8. why so?为什么这样呢?(省略前面提到的上文。)

十一、当用强调句型强调疑问词或让步状语从句的关联词 whatever 等时,常省略强调句型中的 that

  1. When was it (that) you received his e—mail? 你收到他的电子邮件是什么时候?
  2. What was it (that) she bought here yesterday? 她昨天在这里买的是什么呀?
  3. Why is it (that) you would like to stay in this five-star hotel? 我愿呆在这家五星级宾馆是因为什么呢?
  4. We don't know who it was (that) called the doctor? 我们不知道是谁请了医生?
  5. whatever (或 Wherever) it is (that) the girl is doing (或 is going), we must look after her. 不论这女孩在做什么(或准备去哪里),我们都必须照顾她。

十二、在“the + 比较级……,the + 比较级……”句子中省略 be 或 there be 情况

  1. The higher the temperature (is), the greater the volume (is). 温度越高,体积就越大。
  2. In studying a foreign language, the more practice (there is), the better (it is). 学习外语,练习越多越好。
  3. The more, the better. 越多越好。(系成语,还省略其它成分。)

十三、A. 注意某些谓语在接一个 that 从句时,原来搭配的介词短语也可省略不用

  1. a. He insists upon carrying out the test. 他坚持进行这个试验。
    b. We insists (upon it) that the old workers have rich experience in practice. 我们坚持说老工人具有丰富的实践经验。
  2. a. We agreed upon the reform plan. 我们同意这个改革计划。
    b. We agreed that it was a mistake. 我们一致认为,这是一个错误。
  3. a. You may depend upon their support. 你可依靠他们的支持。
    b. You may depend (upon it) that they will support your proposal. 你可以相信。他们会支持你的建议。

注:同时注意省略 in 的一些固定短语。例如:spend much time (in) operating different types of computers 花费许多时间操作各种型式的计算机,be busy (in) writing programs 忙于编写程序, have difficulty (或 trouble) (in) sleeping 难以睡着等。

B. 注意某些形容词要求后面接一固定的介词短语,若接一从句,则只用 that 或疑问词接引出从句,从而省略原用的介词

  1. We are not afraid of dying (或 of death) = We are not afraid that we shall die. 我们不怕死。
  2. We are certain (或 sure) (省去 of) that air is a mixture. 我们可以肯定,空气是混合物。(甚至本句中连词 that 也可省略. )
  3. She is doubtful (省去 about) whether she can complete it in time. 她怀疑她能否按时完成。
  4. I am ignorant (省去 of) what you are talking about. 我不知你们在谈什么。
  5. We felt curious (省去 as to) how they were carrying out the test. 我们很想知道,他们是怎样进行这项试验的。
  6. He was not aware (省去 of) that you went there in 1977. (那时)他不知道你在 1977 年去那里了。

十四、用 to 表示前述动词(包括谓语或非谓语动词)及其短语

  1. You may go to the radio and TV tower with them if you want to. 你愿意的话,可以和他们一起去广播电视塔。
  2. He wants to stay at a four-star hotel but we prefer not to. 他想要投宿一家四星级宾馆,但我们想还是不去那里为宜。
  3. You may go online if you like (to). 你如果想上网就可上网。(注意本句中表示省略不定式短语的标志 to 还可省去。)
  4. Nothing can stop the boy from playing video games when he wants to. 当这男孩想玩电子游戏时,没有东西可阻碍他玩。(句中 to 表示后面省略 play…, 但前面出现的却是动名词短语 playing…。)

十五、在某些动词后含有宾语补语或主语补语的复合结构中省略 to be 或 being 的情况

  1. They found the answer (to be) correct. 他们发现答案正确。
  2. These instruments are thought (to be) very important. 人们认为这些仪器很重要。
  3. This conclusion proved (to be) correct. 这个结论原来是正确的。
  4. When it is warm, we often work with the windows (being) open. 当天气暖和时,我们常开着窗工作。
  5. Science is a structure of many interlocking disciplines, its growth (being) dependent on man’s desire to understand his environment and himself. 科学是由许多相互联系的学科构成的,它的发展取决于人类期望了解环境及人类本身。

十六、注意虚拟语气中省略 should 的三种情况

I. 在 suggest, propose, order, urge, insist 等动词后面的宾语从句中,或在由先行词 it 引出的句意相近的主语从句中,或在主句中含有要求、劝告、命令、愿望、建议等词语的有关从句中,谓语可用“should + 动词原形”,但有时省去 should。例如:

  1. James ordered that everything (should) be ready before beginning the test. 詹姆士命令一切都要在试验开始前准备好。
  2. It is suggested that the task (should) be fulfilled by 12 o’clock. 有人建议这次任务要在 12 点以前完成。

注:这方面例句较多,详见第 144 节第六项及其注释。

II. 在 it is important, it is necessary, it is time 等后面由 that 引出的从句内的 should 常可省略(详见第 144 节十一)。

  1. It is important that the problem (should) be settled in some or other way. 重要的是使问题用某种方法解决.
  2. It is natural that we (should) prove the theorem first. 很自然,我们首先要证明这条定理。

III. 在以 lest 或 for fear that(惟恐,免得)in case(以防)引导的目的状语从句内,谓语动词“should + 动词原形”可省略其中的 should:

  1. We shall remind him lest (或 for fear that) he (should) forget. 我们要提醒他,免得他忘记。
  2. I explained again and again in case the students (should) misunderstand me. 我一再解释,惟恐学生对我误解。

十七、在用 so + that 连接的从句中省略 so 或 that 的情况(参阅第 99 节、一 例 5,6,7)

  1. We are working hard (so) that we may accomplish the splendid goal of the four modernizations. 我们正在为实现四个现代化的宏伟目标而努力工作。(目的状语从句))
  2. They have done much research work on petroleum so (that) they know more about it. 他们对石油进行了许多研究工作,因此对石油较为熟悉。(结果状语从句)
  3. We are very tired, (so) that we had better hurry home. 我们很累,所以我们还是赶快回家去吧。(结果状语从句)
  4. You are, so fast, I cannot keep pace with you. 你走得这样快,我赶不上你。(后句为程度状语从句省略 that。若用 that,中间逗号不宜用。)


  1. Boy 14, rescued from cliff face. 从峭壁上救下 14 岁的男孩(原文相当于 A boy of 14 has been rescued from cliff face.)
  2. SUNK! A QE holiday for 99 old folk. 九十九岁老人乘伊丽莎白二世女王号旅游告吹!(原文相当于:The plan has been sunk that 99 years old folk will travel on holiday in the ship Queen Elizabeth 2.)
  3. Pilot disputes need to abort rescue in Iran. 飞行员对放弃去伊朗营救的必要性提出质疑(原文相当于:A pilot disputes the need to abort the rescue in Iran. )
  4. American President to fly to London. 美国总统将飞往伦敦(相当于“…is to fly to London”。)
  5. Pope visiting poor African nations. 教皇在访问贫穷的非洲国家(相当于“Pope is visiting…”,表示“教皇已在前一、二天到达”。)

注:从上述五个英语新闻标题中可看出:用过去分词表示被动态(上例 1 和 2),用现在一般式表示过去一般时,用动词不定式表示将来一般时,用现在分词表示进行时。


  1. For Sale:Two modular bedrooms 10 feet by 14 feet, used only 14 years. Built-in devices allow rooms to be moved away as they are. Rooms no longer needed;children married or in college. Will accept any reasonable payment. 出售:两间组合装配式卧室(10×14英尺),仅住用 14 年。固定装置能使卧室原封不动地搬迁。卧室不再需要,因孩子已结婚或上了大学。愿接受合理的价格出售。(根据逻辑判别,used 前省略了 have been,广告则用逗号代之。only 后省略了 for。两个 rooms 前都省略的定冠词 the no longer 前省略了 are。在 children 和 or 后也省略了 are. 在 will 前省略了 I。)
  2. Electrical Energy:The energy associated with electric charges and their movements. Measured in watt-hours or kilowatt-hours. One watt—hour equals 860 calories. 电能:由电荷和电荷运动结合而成的能量。以瓦特小时或千瓦小时计量。1瓦特小时等于 860 卡。

上段文字中第二部分不是一个句子,associated(结合)不是过去时形式,而是过去分词作 energy(能量)的定语。第三部分 measured(测量,计量)也不是过去时,而是过去分词。它与第二部分不同的是把 measured 前的 energy 和 is 省略了。第四部分才是一个完整的句子。辞典或手册有时为了节省篇幅。就采用这样一种压缩文字的办法,因此我们在阅读时就要注意这种特殊情况,学会“对于具体情况作具体的分析”方法,广开思路,特别注意从意义上进行逻辑判断。


have trouble (in) sleeping(他)难于睡着。have a hard time (in) getting gran and coal(他)有一段缺粮少煤的艰苦时期[用过去时]. spend one’s evenings (in) reading novels(她)把晚上时间花费在看小说;be busy (in) doing sth. (他)忙于做某事. They are (of) the same age. 他们年龄相同。There is nouse (in) explaining it to her any more. 这件事再向她解释是无用的。He is carrying out this experiment (in) the same way as I did yesterday. 他使用我昨天采用的方法在做他的实验. She has a son of your age. 她有一个跟你年龄相仿的儿子。

二十一、某些词在第一分句中作宾语(位于句首),而在 and 后的第二分句中作主语(一般省略)的特殊句型

  1. All these facts we have discussed, and are examined by every person. 所有这些事实我们都讨论了,并且由每个人检验。
  2. This conclusion we heard her say something about, and can't be wrong. 这个结论我们听她说过,是不可能错的。
  3. There is a one-seater which you could learn to drive in fifty minutes and would do its fifty miles a gallon. 有一辆单座式汽车,这种汽车你五十分钟就能学会驾驶,并且每消耗一加仑汽油能走 50 英里路。

前两句中的 facts 和 conclusion 分别都是第一分句中的宾语,但同时又是 and 后的第二分句中的被省略的主语。第 3 句从 which… 到句末是定语从句,用以说明 one-seater 的。该定语从句由两个分句构成,which 在第一分句中是宾语,而在 and 后的第二分句里是被省略的主语。